The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents

Travels and Explorations

of the Jesuit Missionaries

in New France








Reuben Gold Thwaites

Secretary of the State historical Society of Wisconsin


Thom Mentrak

Historical Interpreter at Ste. Marie Among The Iroquois


Gaspé, Hurons, Lower Canada


CLEVELAND: The Burrows Brothers


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Editor Reuben Gold Thwaites

| Finlow Alexander [French]

| Percy Favor Bicknell [French]

| John Cutler Covert [French]

| William Frederic Giese [Latin]

Translators. | Crawford Lindsay [French]

| Mary Sifton Pepper [French & Italian]

| William Price [French]

| Hiram Allen Sober [French]

| John Dorsey Wolcott [Latin]

Assistant Editor Emma Helen Blair

Bibliographical Adviser Victor Hugo Paltsits





Preface To Volume XXXII





Relation de ce qvi s'est passé en la Novvelle France, svr le Grand Flevve de S. Lavrens en l'année 1647, [Chaps. xiv., xv., concluding the document.] Hierosme Lalemant, Quebek, October 20, 1647.




Epistola ad R. P. Vincentium Caraffa, Præpositum Generalem Societatis Jesu, Romæ. Joannes de Brebruf, St. Mariæ apud Hurones, June 2, 1648




Journal des PP. Jesuites. Hierosme Lalemant; Quebek, January-December, 1648.



Relation de ce qvi s'est passé en la Novvelle France, es années 1647. & 1648. [Chaps. i.-viii. of Part I., first installment of the document.] Hierosme Lalemant, Quebec, October 15, 1648







[page 7]




Portrait of Felix Martin, S.J.; enlarged from a daguerreotype



Photographic facsimile of title-page, Relation of 1647-48


[page 9]


Following is a synopsis of the documents contained in the present volume:

LXIII. This document, the Relation of 1647, was commenced in Vol. XXX. of our series, continued through Vol. XXXI., and is here concluded. In the fourteenth chapter, Lalemant describes various incursions of the Iroquois, and their method of warfare. One of them is captured by a French and Huron party, and delivered by Montmagny to his savage allies for vengeance, but with orders that they should not torment him too long or too cruelly. He is converted through the instructions of the Jesuits, and named after Father Isaac Jogues,—who, it is reported, was killed by this very man. "As soon as he was baptized, he was delivered into the hands of the Savage Captain to whom Monsieur the Governor had given him, in order to exact Justice from him. " He is interrogated regarding Jogues's death, but will not confess that it was he who killed the priest. He meets his fate with meekness, and in expectation of heaven. Through fear of the Iroquois, but six Hurons have come down this year, and of these, only two have escaped death or captivity.

The settlement at Miscou is the subject of the final chapter of this Relation, and Lalemant gives an historical sketch of the Jesuit mission there, depicting the hardships and sufferings in which its foundations [page 9] were laid by Richard, De Lyonne, and the other self-denying Fathers who had carried the Gospel into this remote and barbarous region. The greatest obstacle to their labors was, at first, the insalubrious climate; but the Europeans are now inured to this danger, and no longer die from the prearalent disease of those regions, the scurvy. The mission is gaining ground, and five families have been received into the Christian fold. Various instances of piety and faith among these converts are related.

LXIV. In this brief letter to the father general (written in the Huron country, June 2, 1648), Brébeuf reports the Huron mission as, on the whole, prosperous; and he sees many openings for extending its work. But the incursions of the Iroquois still continue, and threaten the ruin of the mission and of the Hurons; while the opposition of infidel savages is, at times, a great hindrance to the work.

The chief object of Brebeuf's letter is to urge that the rule for a triennial change of the superior of the mission be set aside in the case of Ragueneau, Who is in every way most capable of filling that position specially in leadership and executive ability. The father general is entreated, for the good of the mission, to prolong Ragueneau's term.

LXV. The Journal des Jésuites is a rich quarry for the student of the economic and social history of New France. The record for 1648 contains much of interest, in this connection.

As usual, New-year's gifts are exchanged among the French residents. Chastillon is sent to the Hurons, '' to acquaint them with the state of affairs down here." Father De Quen, sent on a mission to Beauport and other outlying settlements, finds there [page 10] "more than 200 souls, and over 140 Communicants." The month of January sees at Quebec much sickness and death; and the w inter is very mild. The workmen of the mission are employed in the woods, until Easter, in cutting timber for the Jesuits' house. Other improvements are in progress at Quebec—barracks for the fort, and a parish church.

At the Easter season, Lalemant makes public announcement of the penalties for neglect to receive communion. Two interpreters, Amyot and Marguerie, are drowned in the great river, on May 23. The Ursulines elect their superior, on June 3. On St. John's day, Montmagny kindles the bonfire, and Lalemant recites various prayers. Abraham Martin goes to the seal-fishery, and in one day captures forty-two seals, which yield six casks of oil. The Sillery Indians go " to 3 rivers, with the Intention of making war; it was only a farce, which ended in nothing, except eating bread and peas at the fort of 3 rivers. The captive yroquois saw all that, and had good reason to make sport of it."

Bressani arrives from Huronia, on July 22, with letters from that mission; this year, 2 50 of the Hurons come down to Three Rivers, which gives opportunity for sending under their escort a reinforcement for the Huron mission; this includes five Fathers, a lay brother, and twenty workmen and soldiers. They also take a heifer, and a small piece of cannon.

On August 14, letters arrive from France which appoint Louis d'Ailleboust governor-general of Canada, in place of Montmagny. The Tadoussac trade, this year, amounts to 250,000 livres; and the profit thereon, to 40,000 livres.

In September, a drummer is brought from Montréal [page 11] , "convicted of the worst crime." Upon his consenting to become " the executioner of Justice," his sentence is commuted, and he escapes death.

"There were few eels this year, and there was a great tendency to destitution." But " there was a prodigious abundance of white partridges; more than 1,200 had been killed at Beauport within a month."

LXVI. The Relation of 1647-48 consists, like most of its predecessors, of two parts. Part I., containing ten chapters, is by the superior, Jerome Lalemant, who dates his report to the provincial in Paris, of affairs on the Lower St. Lawrence, at Quebec, October 15, 1648; Part II., divided into seventeen chapters, treats of the Huron mission, and is by Paul Ragueneau, who writes from the Huron country under date of April 16, 1648. We herewith present the first eight chapters of Part I.; the document will be concluded in Vol. XXXIII.

In commencing his report, Lalemant mention the change in the governorship of Canada, by Which d’Ailleboust supersedes Montmagny. One of the vessels from France brings three new Hospital nuns but also was afflicted on the voyage by an epidemic which caused several deaths; among these was that of Pierre le Gardeur de Repentigny. Some account is given of the three new nuns. Lalemant sketches the career of Jean Amyot, who was drowned in the St. Lawrence, and highly eulogizes his Character—especially in respect to purity. " He was about to be married, when he died. His comrades were surprised at his modesty, for he made love like an Angel, as it were."

An Iroquois band comes to Montreal, pretending to seek peace and desire friendship; but they intend [page 12] treachery, which is frustrated only by Maisonneuve's vigilance. Other instances of their cunning and treachery are related; and, in a raid near Three Rivers, they capture two Frenchmen. An escaped Huron gives the French residents valuable information concerning the designs of the Iroquois. In July, a large band of Iroquois hovers about Three Rivers, planning to surprise the French settlement there; but, opportunely, the Huron trading-fleet arrives, and defeats the Iroquois, killing many, and capturing a score of prisoners. Bressani and two other Frenchmen come down, with the Hurons. One of the fugitive Iroquois flees to Montreal, and, meeting a French lady, stretches out to her his arms. '4 Those who know that the modesty and bashfulness of that good Lady cause her a terrible fear of those barbarians said, through the respect which they feel for her gentleness and virtue, that she had captured a Hiroquois; and that she accomplished more with her prayers and her rosary, which she was saying at the time, than the soldiers with their swords and muskets.'' Then are narrated the proceedings of a council held after this battle, upon the conclusion of which the Hurons return home, taking with them a number of Jesuits for the Huron mission.

Lalemant occupies much space with the good actions and sentiments of Christian savages, showing their piety, devotion, and constancy,—even amid strong temptations and opposition. The missionaries are pleased to observe that the converted Indians "are beginning to give quite a Christian character to the harmless usages that they have derived from their infidel ancestors." One " brings back to life" his dead nephew in order to remind himself that his [page 13] nephew has not ceased to exist, but is only awaiting the final resurrection.

Lalemant praises the charity and devotion of the nuns, who are doing so great and noble a work in Canada. The Ursulines " refuse no girl, whether French or Savage," and are giving many Indian children excellent training in piety and in the rudiments of knowledge. The Hospital nuns are " greatly burdened this year, especially since the arrival of the ships," on board of which a severe epidemic has prevailed; and the sisters have not accommodations or strength to care for all who apply for admittance into the hospital. Occasional mention is made of the Montreal colony. " Only one Savage dwelt this year at Montreal, and he was blind; but, to compensate, he had virtue enough for twenty-five." He praises God that he cannot see; " for, otherwise, I would have been all my life a proud and arrogant man; I would have despised prayer; and the Hiroquois would have eaten me."

Although the Christian Indians have been successful in war, this year, than in the past, have been severely scourged by sickness and death. But they show great patience and devout resignation in these trials, and the old superstitious practices are almost unknown among them. Many have been healed by their faith and prayers. Father Druillettes now winters with the Algonkin tribes of the Lower St. Lawrence. Here he meets gratifying success in ministering to these wandering sheep, though he suffers great privations.

This year, a large fleet of the Attikamègues come down to Three Rivers for instruction. They show great fervor and piety, not only while there, but in [page 14] their usual wandering course of life; and they have spread some knowledge of the Faith among many of the remote Northern tribes.

We take pleasure in publishing, as the frontispiece to this volume, a portrait—the best now obtainable—of the late Rev. Felix Martin, S.J., first rector of St. Mary's College, Montreal. To the scholarly enterprise and enthusiasm of Father Martin is largely due the accumulation of the rich store of documentary material for the study of New France, now in the archives of St. . Mary ' s. American historians owe him a debt of gratitude, and will be pleased, we think, to find his portrait appearing in connection with the present work. For a biographical sketch of this great collector, see Vol. IV., note 49.

R. G. T.

MADISON, WIS., October, 1998.

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LXIII (concluded)




Commenced in Volume XXX., and continued through Volume XXXI.; the remaining two chapters (xiv., xv.) are herewith given, thus concluding the document.

[page 17]

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HE Hiroquois appearing in various places on the banks of our great stream, a squad of French and Savages undertook to give them chase. It is certainly very difficult to overtake those Barbarians, because they are always on the watch at the points or upon elevated headlands discovering from afar the vessels and their Pilots in order to surprise them, or to combat them if they are in small force; but, if their forces are unequal, they stay concealed in the woods without presenting themselves,—unless through bravado, when they [252] see well that their legs give them the advantage over our weapons. But the time will come when the French, trained for war in the manner of the Americans, will easily find means to stop those runners.

Not long ago, a score of these cannibals giving chase to some of our canoes, a shallop of our party went to attack them, and compelled them to go ashore, but not to give way and flee. Having placed themselves behind the shelter of their canoes, they promptly discharge their arquebuses; and while our French were seeking an advantageous place to disembark, those Barbarians in four minutes erected a little wooden fort, into which they shut themselves [page 19] with the resolution to fight stubbornly. They were ,. valiantly attacked; but, in truth, they sustained the shock with unexpected courage and dexterity. After all, however, believing themselves too weak to resist the assaults which they must expect on the following day, they asked that there be no firing on either side during the night; and meanwhile they escaped stealthily, before daybreak. The Sun appearing, our people found no [253] more enemies to combat, though they made search all about their fortification. A young Frenchman, filled with more courage than physical strength, seeking to follow the enemy by their trail, found one of them concealed in the hollow of a tree: he is drawn from that sepulchre, to be given another. Being questioned, he says that he could have escaped as well as the others, but that, his brother having been wounded, he had concealed himself in order to aid him. He says that there were seven Hiroquois severely wounded, and that he believes that two were killed on the spot; their bodies have not been seen,—it may be that they have carried them away to burn them, according to their custom. There were found in their redout some arquebuses, much heavier and far longer than ours. Two Savages of our band were killed, and six Frenchmen wounded, one of whom died some time later. They were taken to the Hostel Dieu at Kebec,—which assists to the utmost the Colony, both French and Savage,—and were there nursed and aided with the greatest care. Those who put arms in the hands of these Barbarians would deserve the punishment due to all the crimes which the avarice of the one party and the fury of the other have engendered.

This poor prisoner was taken first [254] to three [page 21] Rivers; and thence was conducted to Kebec, in order to be delivered to Monsieur the Governor. The latter gave him, a few days later, to a Savage Captain, with orders not to torture him as long as is their wont, or reduce him to a filthy nakedness, or make quarry of him like dogs. This poor man was conducted to Sillery on the sixteenth of October of this year, 1647; we had already begun to instruct him, that he might die a Christian. He was brought into our little house, and we forcibly represented to him the torments and the rewards of the other life, and the goodness of a God who has given his Son in order to save men; and told the prisoner that, by virtue of that Son's blood, he could be washed from his crimes, and enter Heaven. It must be confessed hat the spirit of Jesus Christ breathes where it Pleases. This poor man astonished us all; he gave marked evidence of his belief, and asked pardon of God for his transgressions. " Yes, I believe," he said; " I wish to go to Heaven, but I am grieved to have offended him who has made all. Jesous, pardon me; Jesous, pardon me," he said in his own language. Do not doubt," he added, " that I believe with all my [255] heart what you teach me. And since, according to your saying, we must all appear before God, reproach me then with my treachery, if my heart has not now the belief which my mouth declares to you." These excellent inclinations softened all those who were near; he was baptized, and was made to bear the name of Father Isaac Jogues,—whom, as some said, he himself had killed.

As soon as he was baptized, he was delivered into he hands of the Savage Captain to whom Monsieur he Governor had given him, in order to exact [page 23] Justice from him. This poor man, under the stress of his torments, exclaimed many times: " Jesous, Jesous." He offered no insult to those who were tormenting him. It is the custom of these wretched nations to make the prisoners sing, while in their tortures; this man used no bravado, or any threat but uttered in his song only these few words: "Antaiok,"—the name, in the Savage tongue, of the Frenchman who captured him,—"Antaiok is the cause of my going to Heaven; I am very glad of it."

Now, before this victim was led to the sacrifice, he was questioned on various points, to which his answers w ere as follows: Father [256] Isaac Jogues, he said, was not killed by the general consent of the three Hiroquois villages; he was not beaten or stripped, but simply struck down. I will say in passing, with reference to this matter, that we attach more Credence to the letters sent by the Dutch than to the words of this prisoner, because we have strong suspicions that it was he himself who killed the Father,—since a Huron, who has escaped from that country, having seen him in the hands of the French, said to him, " Comrade, what canst thou expect from those who have captured thee, having unluckily slain a person whom they loved?" Furthermore, when the interpreter asked him how the man who had massacred the Father's companion was called, he named him without delay; but when he was asked the name of him who had taken the Father's life, he hung his head, without saying aught. He was urged during two days, but opened not his lips: finally, he uttered the name of a Hiroquois. He added that that good woman whom Father Isaac Jogues called his aunt, and from whom he had received some aid, said to [page 25] the murderers, " It is I myself whom you kill; what will the two other villages say, whom you [257] have not consulted about this death, so sudden and so rash ? "

He was asked what had become of the two Frenchmen who had been taken at Montreal. He answered that they had not appeared in their country, and that their scalps alone had been brought thither; he named the Hiroquois who had taken and slain them. He said, besides, that three Hurons had been taken at Montreal, and that their lives had been spared; that two had escaped, and that the third had said to his two companions who wished to take him away: " I love my mother too well; she has saved my life, and I cannot leave her." This was a Hiroquois woman to whom they had given him, in place of her children and relatives killed in war. What follows this has no other connection than that which pen and paper give me.

During the first war with the Hiroquois, there was in Montreal a bitch, which never failed to go scouting every day, taking her little ones with her; and if any one of them acted stubbornly, she would bite it, to make it go on. Nay, more, if one of the pups turned back in the midst of its run, she [258] would fall upon it at her return, as if by way of punishment. Moreover, if she scented, while on the patrol, some Hiroquois, she would turn short, moving directly homeward, barking, and announcing that the enemy was not far away. Her natural inclination was for hunting squirrels; but her constancy in making the round every day as faithfully as men, beginning now on one side, now on the other; her perseverance in directing her little ones, and in [page 27] punishing them when they failed to follow; and her fidelity in turning short, when the scent of the enemies caught her sense of smell,—all these caused astonishment.

The fear of the enemies has kept away, this year, the Savages from Montreal: there have appeared there only six Hurons, three of whom have been taken by the Agneronons, the fourth has been lost, the two others have made a narrow escape. These good people cannot help going to the chase: it must also be acknowledged that that is their pleasure and their life. Having gone away some leagues from the settlement, a Frenchman who accompanied them, while aiding them to build their cabin, wounded one of them with a heavy blow of the axe, which he dealt inadvertently upon his hand. All [259] three are astounded; they wrap up the wound as best they can, proceeding as quickly as possible toward the settlement, in order to have that poor man cared for He, feeling that nature would repine at the great pain which he suffered, animated himself with these words: " How? could I indeed complain of a blow that God has given me, when vanity would make me sing in the midst of the fires, if I were taken by my enemies?" While advancing homeward. they found on the snow a trail freshly trodden by a troop of Hiroquois, who were coming to Montreal on the hunt for men. " Ah! now I plainly see," said that poor wounded man, " that this blow is dealt by the goodness of God; it is not an accident,—his goodness has caused me to lose a hand, in order to save the lives of all three of us. It is true that we are not yet in safety,—we may encounter the enemy, whose tracks and trail we have seen: my only regret is that [page 29] I have not confessed for a long time."" His companion was still more grieved. "What will become of me," he said, "of me who am not yet baptized?" Our Lord preserved them from evil encounter. That poor [260] man, although sufficiently courageous otherwise, could not endure the hand of the Surgeon,—who, in truth, caused him pain, for the wound was severe, and in a very sensitive place. They reproached him that he had no courage. " My arm," he said, " has no sense; it shrinks away when it feels pain. Do not you others do the same, in your sufferings?" The interpreter answered him that in France they bound those who could not endure the cure of their wounds. "Very well," he said; "since I am among the French, I must adapt myself to the French fashion; bind me, and make me keep your customs." In fact, they seized him so effectually that he could no longer move either his hand or his arm: but never did this good man take offense,—imagining that he must adapt himself to the French usages, since he lived with them. He endured for several days that severe treatment, without giving any sign of impatience.

His companion, unable to remain at rest, stole away in order to go and kill some beavers or bustards. Approaching a little pond, he saw a quantity of game arise in great confusion; he suspected, indeed, that it was beaten up by some hunters. Having [261] slipped into the rushes, he heard some cries or songs of birds, which were answering one another; fear seized him, for it is the custom of the Hiroquois and other Savages to call one another by the cries of screech-owls during the night, and by the warbling of other birds during the day. Advancing a little [page 31] further, he perceived 7 or 8 Hiroquois, with arquebuses on their shoulders, hunting on the shores of that pond. He commended himself to God; and, as soon as they had taken one route, he hastened to the opposite one, in order to put himself in a place of safety. The hunt for beasts is very often a passion, but the hunt for men is a madness among these Barbarians.

This Huron of whom I have just spoken is one of the most exce nt awns moot agreeable charactcr3 that one could meet. He puts himself in all the positions in the world in order to please his hosts; he acts the soldier, the plowman, the artisan,—so very naively that he is the amusement of all the French; and very often, when they laugh at him, he banters them so cleverly that they cannot take offense at him. [page 33]



HE Island of Miskou is about 7 leagues round; it is situated in the great Gulf of saint Lawrence, upon the 48th degree of latitude and the three hundred and seventh of longitude. Its soil is not good; the waters are not wholesome there; the woods there are neither as tall nor as beautiful as on the mainland; it abounds in partridges and in hares; there were formerly Elks, but they have all been exterminated. It seems that it is important only for the trade in Elk skins; these are obtained in abundance from the Savages who inhabit three great bays of the mainland, not far distant from this island. Fishing is plentiful there; cod are found in abundance, and every year, as also in the neighboring harbors, many ships are laden with these fish, carrying them to France, Portugal, Italy, and many other regions.

We began, in the year 1635, to build a settlement there; and Fathers Charles Turgis and Charles du Marché were sent thither [263] in order to administer the Sacraments to twenty-three Frenchmen who were to lay its foundations, and to observe the prospects that we might have for the conversion of the Savages. Sufferings were almost the only occupation of all these poor people; sickness prostrated them, and death removed a great part of them. Father du Marché was constrained to return to France; [page 35] Father Turgis resisted for some time, consoling his little fold, hearing some in confession, strengthening others through the Sacraments of the Eucharist and Extreme Unction, and burying those whom death was slaying. But finally toil, and the infection that he contracted beside those poor languishing people, prostrated him as well as the others: yet he must resist, even to the last sigh. He has himself borne to the sick and beside the dying; he animates, strengthens, and encourages them; and, after having buried the Captain, the Agent, and the Surgeon,—in a word, all the Officers, and 8 or 9 workmen besides,—he died there himself, leaving only one person sick unto death, whom he holily prepared for that passage before yielding up his soul.

[264] Father Jacques de la place and Father Nicolas Gondoin—sent the following year into those quarters for the purpose of establishing a mission on the Mainland, to which a part of the Savages might retire—found the French settlement quite desolated; there were left in it only nine persons out of twenty-three, and so weak, moreover, that the Fathers must remain there, in order to assist these. We have been told that some Savages, touched with compassion, took the dead bodies from their beds in order to give them burial,—the French not having the strength to do so. Others, more wicked and barbarous, seeing every one prostrated, tried to plunder the warehouse; but the energy and skill of those who had recovered from the malady—who had more countenance, as the saying is, than money to stake—prevented them from doing this. Now, whatever be the cause of these maladies, it is not long since they were banished from that island. Father Gondoin [page 37] was constrained to leave it; Father Claude Quentin lost his health there, which he came to seek at Kebec after having buried a young lad who assisted him Father Jean Dolbeau became crippled there in all his limbs; and when they carried him back to France in order to find a milder air, he encountered Paradise on the way,—[265] fire, having caught in the powder of the vessel which bore him, sent him to Heaven.

In the year 1643, Father Martin Lyonne, going to the Hurons, passed by Miskou and stopped there seeing that Father André Richard remained a lone through the departure of his companion, who had become a paralytic. This good Father soon followed the path and footsteps of the others; he fell sick the following year, in the month of May, and was cured only in the month of September. We intended to send him back to France, that he might not be exposed to that somewhat harsh air, fearing that the following Winter might carry him off; but, having manifested much resolution to die in Canada, he remained there, and has since enjoyed perfect health,—which he has used for the spiritual assistance of the French, and for the conversion of the Savages. He seems to have buried the diseases, for since that time they have not appeared in Miskou.

Father André Richard, having proved to be the hardiest of all the Fathers of our Society sent to that land of crosses, applied himself with energy to the study of the Savages' language; he associated with them, [266] followed them, and showed them so much good-will that they conceived an affection for him. Father Lyonne has greatly assisted him; Father de la Place, having joined them, has taken [page 39] his share in the work; and all three have laid the foundations of a little Church, which our Lord will bless if it please him.{1}

Monsieur the Abbé de la Magdelaine, Chanter of the Sainte Chappelle{2} at Paris,—impelled by a truly Christian zeal, and wishing to coöperate in the conversion of the Savages,—gave to these good Fathers the means to build a residence on the Bay des Chaleurs, at the Port of Nipigigwi,{3} where he has, with Messieurs of the Company of Miskou, greatly assisted them. Before that abode was ready, the Fathers chose to live there, in order to assist the Savages who usually retire to that place. The snows not being deep enough, during the Winter of the year 1644, to obstruct the wild beasts, a part of those poor people were dying of hunger. Three cabins, composed of twenty-five persons, came to throw themselves into the arms of the Fathers, who found it necessary to save, from their little store, provisions wherewith to relieve the hunger of so many people. They have since then erected little houses [267] in the French fashion, in order to lodge some families who have been instructed and baptized through their care and diligence. It seems that our Lord chooses to treat these poor tribes in a milder manner than those of the upper nations; for not only have they not fallen into any affliction since they have received the Faith, but, on the contrary, you would say that they are blessed of Heaven and earth. Their success in the chase and their health have increased, they say, since their conversion,—so that even the Pagans have been astonished, and several have asked for baptism this year; but we have contented ourselves with granting it to five families, who have increased [page 41] the number of these good Neophytes. Their very notable change has given astonishment to our French, who were not soon expecting so powerful an impulse from the hand of God.

Afflictions, nevertheless, have their good effects; they have brought to Jesus Christ the head of one of those families. He had listened to the voice of the Fathers who publish Christ's Doctrine, but he could not decide to embrace it. Finally, crosses carried the day, notwithstanding his resistance; and he spoke one day, in the presence of the Fathers, as follows: [268] " Some years ago, a contagious disease afflicting our poor country, I was stricken with it, along with several others who died from it. Seeing myself in danger, I had recourse to God; I entreated him with all my heart to restore me my life, firmly resolving to seek my baptism. He cured me, but soon after I forgot him; not so did he forget me, for in order to arouse me, he placed me in another danger. As I was pursuing an Elk, that great animal, feeling himself struck by my javelin, which I hurled at him, turned upon me so suddenly that I could not avoid his rage. Having given me a sharp blow with one of his forefeet, he prostrated me, and left me for dead; my companions coming up, much astonished, deplored my misery. Upon regaining my senses, I again had recourse to him who had already cured me; and again he revived me, contrary to the expectations of those who thought only of my tomb. I turned to my first resolutions; but virtue seeming too difficult to me, and obedience to God's commandments rather hard, I did not keep them, and my health caused me to lose the thoughts of baptism. But at last I have not been able to resist the most [page 43] mighty; he set me back, [269] this Winter, to the point whence he had drawn me,—that is to say, within two fingers of death. Seeing myself in that extremity, I felt deep regret for my treachery. I asked his pardon, and protested that I would no longer be stubborn; he revived me for the third time. It is settled, and I intend to obey him. It is for this reason that you see me with you; I will not go away until my sins be washed in the blood of Jesus Christ.'' He has so effectually knocked at the door that it has been opened to him; he has been made a Christian along with his mother, his brothers, and his sisters.

A Sorcerer, wishing to terrify a Christian, said to him, "I have learned from my Demon that next Winter thy family is to fall into a horrible calamity; that thy little son will soon die; that there is no more hunting for thee, and that thou art going to be miserable, nevertheless, if thou wilt obey my words, I will avert this misfortune from over thy head. Give me the images that thou keepest, and a bottle of wine, and the Demon w ill do thee no harm. " The Christian, mocking at his dreams, answered him: " I belong to God; whether I live or whether I die, I am his. I have already given him [270] my children,—he may take them when he will; it is a happiness for me that they go before me into Paradise. I do not fear thy Demon.'' It is true that his son fell ill, soon afterward; but, when some persons were urging him to obey the Sorcerer, he answered: " I will do nothing of the kind; let them carry my son to the Fathers, and let them pray to God for him,—that is my only recourse." His wife brought the child from a distance of four full [page 45] leagues,—partly on her shoulders, partly dragging him over the snow. she confessed and received communion on the day of the Purification of the Virgin, and the next day carried back her little son, well and sprightly,—our Lord recompensing the mother's Faith by that cure, and the Father's constancy by a successful hunt during the Winter. The Sorcerer, on the Contrary, fell into poverty and want; his weapon broke in his hands; during the Winter he had little success in hunting; and, the following Summer, he was constrained to leave the Country because some, suspecting him of having caused their relatives to die, were seeking his death.

Two Christian Savages, having started from their cabin on Christmas eve, in order to attend the midnight Mass in the Chapel [271] of the Fathers, three leagues distant, encountered on the way the trail of a great Bear. Famine was already beginning in their cabin, and God seemed to give them the best of. all the meats upon which they depend,—for the Bear in their estimations surpasses all other animals. They stopped a little while, in order to consult whether their devotion would get the better of their misery,—seeing, likewise, that the snow which was then falling threatened to conceal from them those footprints. "No matter,'' they said; "let us go and pray to God. It is he who has revealed to us the trail of this beast; it is he who gives it to us, and he intends that we shall eat of it." "Indeed" said one man, "we shall easily be able afterward to pursue this Bear, or any other that God may send us; but we cannot recover the feast of the birth of Jesus, when this night shall be past." They come to Church; they fulfill their duty, confess, and receive [page 47] communion, with much piety and without haste; and then, with the Father's permission, they resume their course. They had not gone far when they again discovered the trail of that Bear; they follow it, and encounter the animal, which they kill, and use as food in their family,—[272] becoming more and more confirmed in the fatherly providence of their Savior Jesus, for so they call him.

A young Christian, seeing himself unsuccessful in the chase, communes with himself. " Whence comes to me," he said within his heart, " this ill fortune? Surely, I have offended God." He examines 'himself, goes to find the Fathers at their residence, twenty leagues from his cabin, and confesses, with much sorrow for his transgressions. He returns to his abode, and meets on the way three Elks; he pursues them, overtakes them, and puts them to death,—blessing God for having opened his eyes through so kindly a check.

A Catechumen, having received a very sharp affront from one of his fellow-countrymen, nursed I know not what rancor in his heart, seeking only an opportunity for revenge; and, as he was a man of importance, he did not lack firebrands, and people who offered him their service against his enemy. He revealed something of this to the Father who instructed him; the Father,—availing himself of those words in the Pater, "Forgive us our offenses, as we forgive those who have offended us,"—seriously warned him that Jesus forbade revenge, [273] and severely punished those who would not forgive; and that, if he aspired to baptism, he must regard his enemy as his brother. This man, admiring the beauty of that Doctrine, received and practiced it; for, as soon as he was baptized, not only did he pardon that injury, but he promised withal to love and to protect as his brother, the one who had offended him,—praying the Father to assure him of this, in his behalf.

A Christian woman, finding herself in the company of some Pagans, was jeered and mocked about her devotions. Her husband,—being unable, although a child of the Church, to endure such derision,—told her that she was too ardent, and that she must moderate her zeal, in order not to give occasion to those who had too large eyes, to have also too large a mouth. " I swish to believe,'' she said, " not by half, but altogether; I will never belie a single point of the faith which I have received from God. They may laugh, and mock, but in vain; nothing confounds me, for I am a Christian'' Her husband, much consoled, said to her, " I love thee the more for it; have good courage, and do not give up the path upon which thou hast entered."

[274] This good soul, urged by her friends to eat meat on days forbidden to those who have any other reasonable food, answered that hunger gave her not so much pain as obedience to the orders of the Church gave her consolation. When one of our Fathers informed her of the intention of the Church regarding this Commandment, she answered him: " I knew it well, but it seemed to me that Jesus said in my heart: ' Hold firm; thou wilt not die for it, and wilt not even be inconvenienced by it.' " In fact, she was always in very good health, and is indefatigable in work. A woman being in child-labor, and seeing herself in danger of death, had recourse to our Lord,—asking [page 51] not life, but baptism for her child. The women who were assisting her, not believing that she would recover, gave notice to the Fathers, who sent her a Sacred Relic. This Christian woman, having received it with much faith in the midst of her great sufferings, was delivered of a child which had sufficient life to receive baptism, and was fortunate enough to pass from the womb of its mother to the [275] bosom of glory. Her relatives and neighbors mourning beside her over the decease of that little Angel, she told them that it was not the time to weep, but to rejoice; and that she felt comforted in the depth of her soul that she had a child in Heaven. "I asked," she said, "for its baptism from Jesus, its Savior and mine; he has granted it to me. Is not this reason for delightful joy and Satisfaction?"

In conclusion, the Fathers of this Missions—who, in the first years, baptized the Savages only when in necessity,—began three years ago to see a lore ample fruit of their little labors, through the conversion of several families of Barbarians, which were making public profession of our holy Faith. Seeing, also, that their new Church had been, within three months, increased by the number of forty Savages, solemnly baptized, they were obliged to go up to Kebec, in order to confer there with the Superior of all our Missions. He—having learned the condition of this new Christendom, and the ardent desire which several Savages, sufficiently instructed in our holy :Mysteries, had for receiving Baptism—sent back, [276] in the month of September, Fathers Jaques de la Place and Andre Richard to satisfy them and to Winter with them; but they were obliged to cross over to France, for want of a bark to convey them [page 53] from Isle Persée (where was anchored the ship which carried them) as far as their new residence, built among the savagesbof the Bay des Chaleurs. God will give to this new Church, as well as to all the others, such blessing as he shall please. [page 55]




LXIV.—Epistola Patris Joannis de Brébeuf ad R. P. Vincentium Caraffa, Præpositum Generalem Societatis Jesu, Romæ; St. Mariæ apud Hurones, 2 junii, 1648

LXV.—Journal des PP. Jesuites, en l'annee 1648

SOURCES: For Doc. LXIV., we follow Father Martinis transcript of the original, which latter rests in the archives of the Society; the transcript is in the archives of St. Mary's College, Montréal. In publishing Doc. LXV., we follow the original MS. in the library of Laval University, Quebec. [page 57]

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Letter of Father Jean de Brebeuf to the Very Reverend Father Vincent Caraffa,

General of the Society of Jesus, at Rome.


Pax Christi.

I think it altogether superfluous to write to Your Paternity concerning the state of this our Huron mission: since Reverend Father Paul Ragueneau, our superior, has officially and fully, as I suppose, discharged that duty. Now, in one aspect, the condition of our affairs appears to be most excellent—because at home the utmost peace, union, and tranquillity flourish among ours and those of our household, and all apply themselves most diligently to piety, virtue, and perfection; and because the interests of Christianity make very satisfactory progress, the Christians increasing more and more, not only in number but also in virtue. Moreover, so many opportunities for promulgating the gospel have disclosed themselves, far and wide, that in a short time the faith would make great progress, did not the extreme dearth of laborers hinder our desires, efforts, and opportunities. For this reason, we urgently request that the Reverend Father Provincial send many laborers to cultivate this vineyard,—which, if ever before, seems now to be grooving even white for harvest. I further note, as tending to the stronger condition of our spiritual affairs, prosperity in things [page 59] temporal; for although, in the past year, nothing whatever was brought to us from France, we nevertheless up to this time abound, and more than abound. Therefore, from all these things it may be inferred that our affairs proceed quite well,—which is a very great favor from God.

But on the other hand there are, altogether, many and considerable influences which not only hinder our work, but seem even to threaten the ruin of the whole mission. Some of these, indeed, are common to us with all the Hurons,—especially the enemy, whom we call by the name of Iroquois; they, on one hand, close the roads and obstruct trade, and, on the other, devastate this region by frequent massacre; in short, they fill every place with fear. Other hindrances, however, are altogether peculiar to us,—notably, the hatred toward us of certain infidel Hurons, which has grown to the degree that a few days ago they killed one of our domestics. They were ready to offer the same treatment to us, if opportunity had occurred. However, God has already turned these latter difficulties into good, and abundant satisfaction has been made to us by all the Hurons for the homicide perpetrated. And the faith, far from receiving any detriment from this, has rather increased thereby,—so true it is that all things work together for good to those who love God. We trust that it will be the same with all remaining obstacles; for, if God be for us, who is against us?

There is certainly one thing which gives me especial anxiety; and about which alone Reverend Father Ragueneau, as I think, has desired me to write; nor, indeed, could or should he write it, through modesty. I fear, I say, lest the Bull of the Supreme Pontiff—[page 61] which was issued at the time when Your Paternity was elevated to the rank of General—respecting the triennial term of authority of superiors, may compel us to change our superior, which cannot be done in this condition of affairs and circumstances, without notable injury to the mission. Surely he who now presides, Reverend Father Paul Ragueneau, is in truth most excellent; and, to speak in a single word, is accomplished in every respect, and thorough in all duties. He has not his counterpart here, and I know not whether he will have in the future. The mission owes very much to him, for he has up to this time governed it most prudently, most benignly, and most vigorously. Such, moreover, is the condition of affairs and circumstances, that I regard him as the one and only man who can govern it now, as befits its dignity. For there are many men here, and among ours there are certainly men who are most devout, and illustrious for many gifts of both nature and grace; nevertheless, they are all, in my judgment, far inferior to him in many respects,—in all other things, indeed, but most of all in the matter of administration; and, in fact, there is no one who has governed before. For the rest, if necessity should compel the choice of another superior, it would seem that he ought to be taken only from those who are here, and not from others who have no experience whatever in these regions. Therefore, as early as last year I wrote to the Reverend Father Provincial that, if it could in any way be arranged, Reverend Father Ragueneau ought to be continued in office, and that in him lay the power for good in this mission. Now, however, I suppose the die is cast; and we expect letters this year, concerning either his [page 63] transfer or his retention. But, if the matter be yet unsettled, I ask and beseech Your Paternity, as far as I can, to prolong his term. The times will not always be the same; the same necessities will not always exist. After another three years, some one else can succeed him, if not with equal usefulness, yet certainly with less injury and peril. This one thing is what I beseech of Your Paternity,—being ready, nevertheless, for all things, if it should happen otherwise than I desire, for what I wish, I wish but little, and only in so far as it will conduce to the greater glory of God. It is mine to propose, but for God to dispose. I furthermore beg Your Paternity to bestow on me your blessing.

Your Very Reverend Paternity's

Most humble and most Obedient

Servant in Christ,


From the Residence of Ste. Marie,

among the Hurons, in New France.

June 2, 1648.

[page 65]

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Journal of the Jesuit Fathers, in the year


1648, JANUARY.

HE Hospital nuns sent a letter in the morning by Monsieur de St. Sauveur, and, the evening before, a small keg of Spanish wine,—about 4 pots.{4} The same Day, I sent them a letter, and a book,—father Suffren s abridgment{5}.

I gave Monsieur de St. Sauveur a wax taper and a gerson;{6} he asked for a Skullcap, which I had made for him.

The Ursulines sent a letter and a relic-cross for me; a cake of candle-wax for father lyonne and father le Jeune; and a dinner on the Day of the Circumcision. I sent them a letter and an Image in a frame, for the oratory of their School.

I gave Pierre,—him who kept the lectern,—a box, an Image, a Rosary, and a little book. To Monsieur and Madame Bourdon, a reliquary, a book of hours, and an Abridgment of father suffren.

To our Fathers and brethren, etc., we gave, in the evening, a great illuminated Picture in vellum; and I sent one like it to Sillery.

After vespers, we said the litany of our Lady; and, the day before, that of the name of Jesus. [page 67]

They came to notify us, about 8 o'clock in the evening, of the disaster which happened on this 1st Day of the year, to wit, that four Frenchmen—Louys Couillart, Chastillon, delessar, and a fourth—having gone to the lake, 3 had been taken by the yroquois, and Chastillon alone had escaped; but, on the next day, the three who were said to have been taken returned .

At epiphany, Monsieur the governor sent 2 Turkeys and four Capons; I sent half thereof to Sillery.

About this time, 2 or three Hurons came from 3 rivers, who brought us some letters.

On the 7th, fire broke out at the brewery of the settlement.

On the 11th, Chastillon, a soldier, left here in Company with the Hurons, to the number of 7, who were returning to 3 rivers. Chastillon went thither to make ready for the journey to the Hurons at the Beginning of spring. He left on deposit with us a trunk with its Key, and another Key to a Chest which he had carried to Denys DuQuet’s.{7} He gave me to understand that, if God disposed of his person, we would find in his trunk the statement of all his affairs and arrangements. He went, as it were, before, to bear monsieur the governor's voice to the Hurons, in order to acquaint them with the state of affairs down here, and with orders to do and to say only what the Father Superior of the Hurons should command him. A few Days later, his Hat also was brought to me to be kept, and an [page 69] arquebus, for having menace Which la fortune, the blacksmith, asked 7 livres and 10 sols.

On the 17th, Joseph A¸onchiarre, of la Chaudiere, died, being accidentally wounded by his companion ochiwentaete, whose arquebus went off against his Leg, which had to be amputated. He was brought to the hospital on the last Day of the year 1647; he was baptized the same Day, then twice received absolution, and died on the above-mentioned Day. He was buried in the Common Cemetery, in a Coffin, at the Entreaty of his Companions, who drew him upon a sledge from the hospital to the Cemetery.

On the 14th, father de Quen returned from his mission at Beauport, Cap de Tourmente, and the Island of orleans: he found there more than 200 souls, and over 140 Communicants.

Toward the end of this month, there were many dead and sick people.

Item, toward the end of this month came a Huron from 3 rivers, who then Straightway returned, with another.


On the eve of the purification, there was nobenediction; on the Day, after the benedicamus domino for vespers, vie said the Litany of ourLady, which is good to be observed at all the feasts of our lady.

We had about 100 small tapers, made by our brother Noircler, with Wax, wicks, etc., [page 71] from the Church, which were distributed in the same manner as last year. But it will certainty be expedient to arrange, as soon as possible, that the people come to get their Tapers according to the rubrics,—observing no order, unless for Monsieur the governor and those who shall be nearest the railing; yet there is difficulty therein, unless on that Day the benches are moved and room is made.

We did not preach at mass; the festival having fallen on a Sunday, and there having been distribution of holy Water, it would have been too long; but the afternoon lesson in the Catechism turned upon the subject of the feast.

This same Day, Drouin's wife, daughter of Master Zacharie,{8} died; she w as brought to the hospital on the 4th, where two Fathers, with the usual Church Choristers, went to say vespers for the dead; and at the end of vespers, they held the Ceremony over the Body, which was then carried to the Cemetery. They did not wish to draw it on the sledge; they were constrained to bear it two by two, because of the narrow roads. We sent from the parish church 4 tapers, 4 torches, the Cross, and the Psalter. The next day, a high Mass was said at the parish church; but the relatives were notified that they should go and Invite Poisson,{9} an Artisan, to help say Mass, together with Pierre, who was a workman of the settlement, thereto appointed. We draped the Altar in black, and lighted 4 tapers; [page 73] there w ere none of our brethren to serve mass.

The same Zacarie and Drouin requested another Mass for the 5th Day following; we allowed them a loin mass, but it would have been better to give it to them on the 3rd, or the 8th, or the 30th, according to the rubrics.

On the 6th, the Hospital nuns regaled the house magnificently, et sœpe alias multa miserunt.

For the Days of Shrovetide, they sent hither from the warehouse and from Monsieur the governor, abundance of meat,—a quarter of Steal, and moose. Four moose had been killed by the Hurons who were wintering here, to the number of three or four, besides those echo were at 3 rivers.

We sent from here four bottles of Spanish wine for the Shrovetide days at Sillery, from that which had been given us from the hospital and from the warehouse: we had sent two bottles previously.

The 3 Days' devotions passed as in the former years; that went well, and they must be continued.

Ash Wednesday went off better than in the two preceding years. We observed it as follows, and gave notice to the people before hand: the 1st bell at 7 o'clock (they might ring it at 6f ); the 2nd at 7½, at which time we said a low mass. At the end of this was rung the 3rd bell for high mass, at the Beginning of which the blessing and the distribution of the Ashes took place,—monsieur de [page 75] St. Sauveur giving me and receiving from me Ashes, according to the rubrics. Then our brethren, Monsieur the governor, and then the people, came to the railing without Ceremony; and, to do this conveniently, they removed the benches which might be in the way,—which is necessary. At the end of high Mass, Monsieur de St. Sauveur said His.

I announced the sermons—for Fridays, at the hospital, by father bailloquet; and for Wednesdays, at the Ursulines', by father lyonne.

On the last Day of February, some Hurons came back from 3 rivers, who brought us letters, and who returned 8 or 10 Days later .

We went to Beauport on feasts and Sundays, and even on Ash Wednesday, as long as the ice on the river allowed it.

The winter, this year, was still milder than that of last year: they began to sow about the same time as last year.

MARCH, 1648.

St. Joseph's day passed quite as in last year, so, too, the Annunciation; all that went well.

Amyot arrives here with 3 Hurons on the 27th, having come by Canoe as far as Cap rouge.

On the 30th, a certain Andre, from Monsieur de Launay ' s, was crushed by another man's fall. He survived 24 hours, received [page 77] extreme Unction, and, after his death, was brought to Quebek,—where, the Chapel steps being too Inconvenient, he was borne to one of the men's rooms at the Ursulines'. The priest who was to say mass went there to get him; and, when he was set down at the Ursulines' Church, with two torches and candles about the Body, wesaid a low mass there; then the closing Ceremony took place, and he was borne thence to the ground in the Cemetery. At the Same times Gabory, one of our men at Sillery, was wounded in the same manner.

On passion Sunday, which was the 29th, we went to the Hospital the same as last year. We said there the Stabat, O crux ave, Ave regina cœlorum, and Domine salvum fac regem; that was at the conclusion of Catechism.


On palm Sunday, everything occurred the same as last year.

The Hospital and Ursuline nuns sang the Tenebrœ entire.

Holy Thursday, the same as last year.

Item, Good Friday, except that Monsieur de St. Sauveur sang the Passion, because he who was officiating had preached it Immediately before. We began the preaching at 7 o'clock; it lasted 2 and ½ hours, and the service was appropriately finished.

Saturday, the same as last year; all went well. Monsieur de St. Sauveur assisted me well throughout; benediction, the same. [page 79]

On Easter Sunday, father le Jeune, at the end of the 1st and 2nd Masses, discoursed upon the Blessed Sacrament during the Communions; and the preaching was put off till afternoon, at the close of Vespers. Benediction at 5½ o'clock. All that went well.

On monday and tuesday, everything occurred the same as last year, except that the nuns sang the o filii responsively.

On Tuesday, we Invited Monsieur de St. Sauveur to dinner; and to the others who assisted in the choir we gave a bottle or so of wine.

Sa¸ondionrhens, a Huron from the village of la Conception, who had wintered here, was baptized on Easter even; his godfather, Monsieur de la fresnaye, named him Charles.

An error was committed at the Ursulines', at the Hospital, and at Sillery, in giving Communion on Easter Day.

During easter week, Amiot returned with the Hurons, and Monsieur de la Tour, who went in a Shallop to make war. I gave Amyot Chastillon's Arquebus, as he had written me that I should do so. They did not leave till Thursday, the 16th of the month of April.

Our people, to the number of ten or twelve, worked in the woods all winter until Easter, for the timber of the great house; all was done and brought thither at Easter; and at Easter they began to work upon the spot. Our brother Nicolas le fauconier had charge of the masonry; our brother liegeois, the superintendence of the whole work; and our brother [page 81] Ambroise Cauvet, of the timber for the joiners, etc.

At the same time, barracks were being built at the fort, and a Church for the parish.

Four or 5 persons were put on the Chevalet for becoming intoxicated at Easter.

Father Bailloquet went at this same season, for the 1st time, to say mass at point levi; and afterward to the isle aux oyes (Monsieur de St. Sauveur to Beaupré).

On the octave of Easter, I announced the Canon of the Council of the lateran, and the penalties declared against those who do not receive communion at Easter (de quo vide Cardinalem de lugo, titulo "de Eucharistia"),—vivens ab Ecclesiœ ingressu arceatur, et moriens Ecclesiastica careat sepultura. I gave 8 Days' respite, and then post octo dies declarandi erant incurrisse excommunicationem, seu potius excommunicandi erant, cum non de facto essent excommunicati, sed excommunicandi, ergo ab habente potestatem, quamnon habent parochi; quod si dicatur nos amplius aliquid habere cum non mihi constaret, proposui non facere, sed petere in gallia quid agendum, si nihil nobis ad solutionem difficultatum hoc anno adveniret.

On the 25th, St. Mark's Day, everything occurred the same as last year. I went, on the day before, to inspect the roads for the procession to the Hospital and Ursuline nuns': they did not appear to me sufficiently passable to malice the Procession in a becoming manner; nevertheless, I afterward repented this. The Church, it seems, and Usage, require greater [page 83] Inconveniences than that, for omitting this procession.

On the 24th of April, Chastillon' s Canoe left 3 rivers to go to the Hurons; he himself was in it with two Christian savages,—René Oheraenti and Michel. They were escorted as far as the river des prairies by a Shallop which proceeded to Montreal, whence father Daran started to come to us, on account of an incipient rupture. He arrived at Quebek on the 5th of May.

On the 26th, I went to Sillery to begin the Retreat; I began it on the evening of the 27th.

MAY, 1648.

On the 7th, the renewal of vows took place at Sillery; Abstinence and Exhortation the day before. This same Day, for the 1st Vespers of St. Michael I invited the choristers, and gave word of this devotion to Monsieur the governor and to others. He was present; and at the conclusion we gave a Collation to them all in four divisions: to Monsieur the governor and the most respectable people, in the refectory; to the musicians, in the little hall; to the sailors, in the carpenter-shop; and to the remainder, soldiers, in the great hall. That went well. Monsieur the governor came ill a shallop, and returned on foot.

On the 8th, after having said mass at Sillery, I returned in a canoe; and, father Druillettes having on the same Day returned from his wintering with the savages, the same canoe brought him back to Sillery. [page 85]

On the 12th, the bark sailed for Montreal,—in which was father bailloquet, who was going away in father Daran's place.

On the 10th was indicated the close or vacation of instruction in the Catechism, which went very well, even to the end; there was Catechism till the 3rd Sunday, Inclusive.

On the 14th, the flyboat or bark for Tadousak sailed, in which were father Dequen and father lyonne, who were going thither upon a Mission.

On the 16th, they secured the person of N. at the hospital, for reasons which will be found at the Hospital, or in the Archives.

On the 17th,—rogation Sunday,—we made the Procession after Vespers, round about the Fields, and over Cap aux Diamans, andreturned by the main street; we sang the litany of the saints and of our Lady: there was just the space necessary for this. We came back to sing the regina cœli at the Church. I gave a collation to Monsieur de St. Sauveur at the return.

On the 18th, the 1st Salmon was caught by Monsieur de St. Sauveur; two days before, they had taken some maigre,{11} and, before that, plenty of carp.

On the 23rd, Amyot and Marguerie were drowned. The news of it was brought by the bark which came back from Montreal, bringing Mademoyselle d'Ailleboust and the news of the conference with the yroquois at Montreal,—Cujes historia will be seen in a letter from father Dendemare in the Archives. [page 87]

On the 30th of May, another meeting with some yroquois, at 3 rivers, Cujes historia ibidem, and others thereafter.

JUNE, 1648.

On Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun-week we were not at the Ursulines’ and Hospital as in the former years, propter defectum musicorum, for the service would have been uninteresting.

At this time, the 40 hours' devotion was observed at the Ursulines' for the Election of the Superior, which occurred on the 3rd of June in pace et benedictione; and the renewal of their vows took place on Monday, the 5th, the day after Trinity. I entered the house with father le Jeune and father Daran, on the 9th, to make the visitation.

On the 10th, the body of Amyot was seen near Sillery, and that of Marguerie near Quebek; both were buried on the same Day—one at Sillery, the other at Quebek.

On the 11th, the festival of the Blessed Sacrament, the procession took place at the time and in the manner of the former years. All went well: 1st Mass as usual; the 2nd, which was high mass, item, as usual, at 7½ o'clock,—at which Monsieur de St. Sauveur was present. At the close, the procession then took place: our brother Nicolas bore the Cross; and Joliet and Coste, two little boys in surplices, were on either Side of the Cross, with wreaths of flowers on their heads. The savages followed, led by father le Jeune in [page 89] surplice and stole; then, twelve torches, of 12 trades; next, four lay choristers with tapers; then Monsieur de St. Sauveur, in Cope; then father Daran and father Greslon in Stole and chasuble. Then followed Louys, clad by the Hospital nuns as an Angel; and he led by the hand trio little savages. Then followed Benjamin as an Angel, dressed by the Ursulines; he bore a corporal-case between two little savages carrying wax candles. Two of our brethren followed, who bore smoking Censers; then four of our brethren at the 4 Corners of the Canopy, with Surplices and silver Candlesticks. Monsieur de Chavigny, Monsieur de la Tour, Monsieur Bourdon, and Jean Baptiste, the Savage, bore the canopy. Beside the priest walked father Druillettes in Dalmatic, and father Gabriel, in a Deacon's stole.

  1. error: neither I nor the Deacons should have had maniples.
  2. error: we did not sing the Domine salvum fac regum, at the temporary altar by the fort; but not having foreseen this, I said only the prayer for the king.
  3. the savages whom Louys was leading were too small for so long a march.
  4. There were crosses everywhere upon the altars; there should be none.

The savages were distributed at the Ursulines', at the hospital, and at the Warehouse,—where, after having dined, we gave them wherewith to make a banquet at Sillery in the evening. There were 20 at the hospital, [page 91] and as many at the Ursulines'; the men alone, in less number, at the warehouse.

I doubted whether we ought not to have given Wreaths to those who bore the canopy, and others.

On the 12th came the news brought by the Algonquains and Hurons who started, as early as last Autumn, to winter here; the original accounts will be found in the Archives, titulo Hurons. Leger, a young Lad, arrived at the same time, and remained at Montreal, after having lived about a year among the Hurons.

On the 23rd, the bonfire took place as usual; I was present, as were father le Jeune and Father Greslon. Monsieur the governor came for me, about 8½ o'clock. We went to walk in his Garden, and, about a quarter past 9, we went to the fire. Monsieur the governor set it, as was his wont; after the fire was started, I sang the ut queant laxis, the benedictus and St. John's prayer; the domini salvum fac regum, and the prayer for the king,—all without surplice. We returned at 10 o'clock.

This month, Master Abraham,{12} with two of his sons-in-law, went away for the 1st time to the seal-fishery; he took, on the eve of St. John's day, 42 at Isle rouge, near Tadousac; from which he made 6 casks of oil.

Item, Noel with his people went away to 3 rivers, with the Intention of making war; it was only a farce, which ended in nothing, except eating bread and peas at the fort of 3 rivers. The captive yroquois saw all that, [page 93] and had good reason to make sport of lt. Noel and his people, having left here on the 21st of June, returned on the 3rd of July.

1648, JULY

On the 4th arrived the 1st news from France, through the Montagnais of Sillery, who had gone as far as Gaspé.

During this whole month of July, several events occurred at 3 rivers which concerned the yroquois, and will be found in the letters among the Archives or in the relation,—among others, the capture of two of our Frenchmen, pierre le Febvre,{13} and a nephew of Monsieur de la Poterie. Item, of some Hurons; the slaughter of some others, and of two Yroquois. The news was brought to us, on the 16th, by a Shallop, which left again on the 17th, with a great boat.

On this same 17th, Pierre Onaatichiae—a Huron, called "Sansoucy"—was baptized.

On the 18th, the Savages left, to return to war; father Druillettes went with them.

On the evening of the 17th, there was a squall of wind here, with rain and thunder, and the wind so furious that, it seemed, it could hardly be stronger. The may-poles at the fort and the warehouse fell; nothing of this was felt at Sillery, but only rain.

On the 19th, I announced the procession and the 40 hours' devotion at the two religious houses,—that the entire week might be spent in holiness.

The procession took place ut in rituali [page 95] tempore belli. 1st, to the Ursulines; 2nd, to the hospital: liberum factum est Coadjutoribus ire post crucem, in habitu suo ordinario

The 40 hours' devotion began at the hospital on Monday, with a solemn Mass about 7 o clock, when the Blessed Sacrament was exposed at the Communion, and remained exposed until the Benediction at 7 o'clock in the evening; and, on the 2nd and 3rd Days, it was exposed from 5 o'clock in the morning until 7 o'clock in the evening. On the 1st Day, for benediction, the ordinary benediction with the Blessed Sacrament; on the 2nd Day, the miserere and Tantum ergo, and, on the 3rd, the litany of the name of Jesus, and the Tantum ergo, with several Prayers Appropriate to the circumstances and the season.

On Thursday, we began the same at the Ursulines'; but on the 22nd, at the Beginning of the Mass, arrived father Bressany, who brought letters from the Hurons, and the news of their encounter with the yroquois, of whom they killed or captured 30 or 35.

The Hurons having come downs to the number of 250, father le Jeune and I (nullo alio Consultore prœsente resolved upon the departure for the Hurons of fathers Lalemant, Daran, and Greslon, of our brother Noircler and the little Louys; and we made ready for; going to 3 rivers on the 24th of July. eve returned thence on the 9th of August.

On the last of the month, father lyonne returned from his mission at Tadoussac. The feast occurred at the Ursulines', the same [page 97] as last year; at the Hospital nuns, with the exception that for lack of Musicians and a priest, the nuns alone sa governors; and all the letters brought by want of a priest, no mass was said at the parish church, but only at the Ursulines'.

AUGUST, 1648.

On the 6th, the 50 or 60 huron Canoes started from 3 rivers, which took on board 26 frenchmen, whose names will be found Archives in the annual Catalogue of houses,—5 fathers, one brother, 3 Boys, 9 workmen, and 8 soldiers,—besides 4 that were to be taken at Montreal; a heifer and a small piece of Cannon.

At this same time, the fishery ceased. That for salmon ended 15 Days before; of this fish they salted 9 kegs, and ate or distributed fully as many. The salmon-fishery was followed by that for sturgeon, of which they took 27, very large and fat; and, on the Day of St. Lawrence, they began to take eels.

At the return from 3 rivers, on the 9th of August, there entered our service Pierre honaatichiai, called "Sansoucy." On the next day, he gave me 21 pounds' weight of Beaver, because I was his Father; this was given to the warehouse and valued at 63 livres in silver, which were applied to us; and consequently we are accountable to the said Sansoucy for the aforesaid 63 livres.

In the night between the 13th and 14th, father dequen arrived from Tadousac with a Surgeon named belanger, who bore the [page 99] letters from the king, respecting the change of governors; and all the letters brought by the; Admiral arrived at Tadousac on the 8th.

On the 15th the procession occurred,—like last year's. except that our brother Nicolas, in Surplice, was the one who bore the cross. The savages were not in sufficient number to form in embody, and thus what there were of them went behind. There were two Surpliced Boys, with Candlesticks, on either side of him who bore the image of our Lady.

On the same Day father DeQuen started again for Tadousac, and a Canoe was sent to Monsieur d'Ailleboust.

Benjamin comes from the Ursulines', where he was, to our house, to serve us.

On the 20th, the Day of St. Bernard, Monsieur d’Ailleboust anchored before Quebek, and was received as Governor: the account of the Ceremony will be found in the Archives.

On the Day before, the 3 Hospital nuns{14} arrived with father Vimont, who was returning from France, and a lad named Colivet. Avon, a certain Pierre Oliveau, a Miller,—or sent as such,—and Pierre biron, who was exchanged with Cartron, who had come for Monsieur Macar.

On the 24th, a shallop left for 3 rivers and Montreal, which bore the letters and orders; and Daniel Cartron was placed in the vessel to go and serve at 3 rivers.

On the Day before, the bark returned and brought back from 3 rivers the little Jean, who was employed at Sillery. [page 101]

On the 26th, basile and his nephew entered our service.

On the day of St. Augustine I said mass at the Ursulines', and father Vimont at the Hospital, where the Blessed Sacrament was exposed on account of the Indulgences. These, not having beenz published at the parish church, were posted on the public Tree or May-poll by Monsieur de St. Sauveur (they say), without speaking of the matter to me; et hoc male. Father Vimont preached in the morning at the hospital, publicly; and at evening in private at the Ursulines'. There were no benedictions.

On the 29th, the bark left again in order to go and get the remainder of the Beavers at 3 rivers; and it returned on the 6th of september. There was mademoyselle de la poterie, etc.,—and, among others, Marie Magdelaine, who was placed at board with barbe hybou,{l5} on the 7th of the same month.

The Tadousac Trade this year amounted to forty thousand livres' profit, and, in all, to about 250,000 livres. There were at least 22,400 1ivres' weight, and more than 500 moose.


On the 3rd, father le Jeune goes to Sillery to take charge of the house, at the return of the savages from their journey in the Canoes.

On the 13th, Monsieur de Tilly and Monsieur Vignar, the priest of the Ursulines, arrived in a shallop.

About this time, there was brought from montreal a drummer, Convictus crimine pessimo, [page 103] whose death our Fathers who were at Montreal opposed, sed occute; he was then sent hither and put in the prison. It was proposed to him, so that he might at least escape the galleys, to accept the office of executioner of Justice; he accepted it, but his trial was first disposed of, and then his sentence was commuted.

On the 20th, the nostre Dame arrived; on the 21st, the St. Sauveur and the Flyboat, which brought the cargo of count d 'oignon 's frigate; and, on this same 21st, arrived the last Shallop from 3 rivers.

On the 23rd, the Admiral sailed again, Commanded by Monsieur de Montmagny; on board were Monsieur Godefroy,—Controller-general, and Admiral for the return,—and father Martin Lyonne; and with it the Flyboat.

On the 29th, a Shallop started for 3 rivers, and father DeQuen went on board.

On the 30th, the Montréal bark sailed, and in it Marie Magdelaine, and on the same Day the flyboat returned from Tadousac.


Of the three yroquois who escaped on the 6th, who were captives at 3 rivers, the one named le berger came back, and brought with him Pierre le febvre, a captive among the yroquois: the story and its continuation will appear elsewhere.

On the 22nd, the last two vessels sailed,—the nostre dame and the St. Sauveur, in which was our brother Liegeois; and, on the 28th, father Buteux and all those from 3 rivers returned. [page 105]

On the 25th, the Jubilee Began; on Sunday we made a procession, after vespers, to the hospital; and on the Day of St. Simon and St. Jude the savages can e here in Procession. On All Saints' Day, a Procession to the Ursulines'; and on the Sunday, which was the 15th day of the Jubilee for the close of the same, a general Procession,—that is to say, to both the religious houses.

There were few eels this year, and there was a great tendency to destitution.

This year the half of the great main Building was finished, and the foundation of the Cellar.


The snow Begins on the 18th.

Two Hurons come from 3 rivers on the 24th, and return on the 27th or 28th.

The Savages withdrew from Sillery this month, and made a fort in the woods at the end of their clearings.


No salute was fired at the fort, either at the feast of St. Xavier, or at that of the Immaculate Conception. Father Vimon published at the 1st Mass the Indulgence of St. Xavier{l6}; non expedit publicari, because of the impending Indulgence for the Immaculate Conception, which is a festival; and, the Indulgences published on a Workday, not being observed, become unimportant and of little value. Everything takes place as in the former years,—benediction on the eve of the [page 107] Immaculate Conception and on the Day, at the close of Vespers, the litany with Music.

Father Vimont went on a mission to Beauport for the space of 8 Days in the week of Fasts; from the Sault downward, there were more than 50 men bearing arms.

There was a prodigious abundance of white partridges this year; more than 1,200 had been killed at Beauport within a month.

The midnight mass was preceded by matins which were said for the 1st time, and well; there was a great concourse, and the whole Church overflowed even from the commencement of Matins, which began at 10 o'clock. The last bell was rung a quarter of an hour before, and we ended a quarter before Midnight; and this quarter was happily spent in a little address which, though occurring only by chance, showed that it was a thing to be done purposely. We sang the 13 psalms of the Nocturnes in faux-bourdon and the responses of the last Nocturne with music; at the Elevation, music with viols,—and so during the communions, which were administered by another priest, while the one who had said high mass was saying a 2nd Mass in a low tone. All that is well, done thus. We had no need of fire in the Church.

We were not in the Churches at the Christmas feasts.





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RELATION OF 1647 - 48


SOURCE: we follow a copy of the original Cramoisy, in Lenox Library.

Owing to its length, we publish herewith but eight chapters of Part 1.; the document will be concluded in Volume XXXIII. [page 111]



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in the Missions of the Fathers

of the Society of JESUS,



IN THE YEARS 1647 AND 1648.

Sent to the Reverend Father Provincial of

the Province of France.

By the Superior of the Missions of the same




Sebastien cramoisy,



ed by

Printer in ordinary to the King;

and to the Queen Regent,

ruë St. Jac-ques, at the



Gabriel Cramoisy.

sign of the Storks.





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Table of the Chapters contained in this Book.


Relation of what occurred in New France on the great river Saint Lawrence, in the year one thousand six hundred and fourty-eight

page 1

Chap. I.

Of the arrival of the ships

page 4


Of what passed between the French and the Savages, their allies, and the Hiroquois



Of the arrival of the Hurons, and of the defeat of some Hiroquois



Of some good actions and some good sentiments of the Christian Savages



Continuation of the same subject



Of some other good actions of the Savages



Of the wintering of Father Gabriel Druilletes with the Savages



Of the tribes called the Attiguamegues



Of the Mission of the Holy Cross at Tadoussac



Various matters that could not be related in the foregoing Chapters


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Relation of what occurred in the Mission of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus in the Huron Country, in New France, in the years 1647 and 1648


Chap. I.

Situation of the Country of the Hurons; of their allies, and of their enemies.



Of the general state of the Mission.



Of our house of Saine Marie.



Of various defeats of our Hurons by their enemies.



Of God’s Providence toward some Christians captured or killed by the enemies.



Of the Baptisms of some Hiroquois taken in war by the Hurons.



Of the negotiations for peace between the Hurons and the Onnontaeronnons.



Of an Embassy of the Hurons to Andastoé.



Of the progress of Christianity in the Huron Missions.



Of the Algonquin Missions.



Good sentiments of some Christians.



Of the chief superstitions of the Hurons in their infidelity; and, in the first place, their opinions respecting dreams.



Opinions of the Hurons regarding their diseases.



Of a species of charm which the Hurons use to bring good fortune



Opinion of the Hurons regarding diseases which they consider to be caused by whichcraft. Of their Soothsayers and Magicians.



What knowledge the pagan Hurons had of the Divinity



Of the murder of a Frenchman killed by the Hurons, and of the reparation that was made therefore.


Extract from the Royal License.

Y grace and Privilege of the King, permission is granted to SEBASTIEN CRAMOISY, Bookseller under Oath in the University of Paris and Printer in ordinary to the King and to the Queen Regent, Burgess and ex-Alderman of this City of Paris, to print or to have printed a Book entitled Relations de ce qui s'est passé de plus remarquable és Missions des Peres de la Compagnie de JESUS en la Nouvelle France, és années 1647. et 1648. envoyée R. P. Provincial de la Province de France, par le Superieur des Missions de la mesme Compagnie. And this during the time and space of ten consecutive years, prohibiting all Booksellers and Printers from printing or causing to be printed the said Book, under pretext of disguise or change that they might make therein, on pain of confiscation and of the fine provided by the said License. Given at Paris, in December, 1648.

By the King in Council,



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Permission of the Reverend Father Provincial.

WE, Estienne Charlet, Provincial of the Society of JESUS in the Province of France, have granted for the future to sieur Sebastien Cramoisy, Bookseller, Printer in ordinary to the King and to the Queen Regent, and Burgess and ex-Alderman of this City of Paris, the printing of the Relations of New France. Done at Paris, this 30th of December, 1648.


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[X] Relation of what occurred in New France,

on the great River St. Lawrence, in

the year one thousand six

hundred and forty-eight.

To Reverend Father Estienne Charlet, Provincial of the Society

of JESUS in the Province of France.


Here is our annual tribute, which is somewhat larger than that of last year; and, moreover, we have gathered it not only from among the neighboring nations, but also from those more distant.

[2] Your Reverence will observe in these two Relations that a goodly number of Savages have been baptized. You will find that the Faith strikes its roots very deep into the hearts of Believers; that those who have embraced it commence to form a body, and to resist the Pagans who attack it—sometimes in secret, and sometimes openly; that it has been most triumphant in the greatest dangers; that the Hiroquois, the common enemies of the French and of the Savages who are their allies, have this year lost more than they have gained; that, in spite of their ambushes and weapons, we sent assistance to the upper countries,—at least, we think that four of our Fathers, who had been knocking at the door for a year or two, have entered the Huron country with a score of French; and that they who called to us for aid, and whom we have succored as much as [page 127] we could, so as not to lose so excellent an opportunity as that which presented itself, expected a larger number of Gospel laborers. That is the only thing that they desire and need, and the want of it will cause them to lose opportunities of extending their work, and prevent [3] us who are down here from continuing some Missions hat we had begun.

Such, My Reverend Father, is a brief summary of what your Reverence will see in more detail in these Relations. All that remains for me to do is most humbly to entreat your reverence, and all our Fathers and Brethren, to remember that we commend ourselves to their holy Sacrifices and prayers, that we may be careful, by faithful observance of our duty, to carry out the adorable designs of the Divine Majesty respecting these poor peoples.

Your Reverence's,

From Quebec, this Very humble and very obe-

15th of October, 1648. dient servant in Our Lord,


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T is a pleasure to see two persons of merit and virtue vying with each other in deference,—especially when one of them lays aside the interests that might induce him to dispense with it did he not fortify his courage with some thought more worthy and more elevated than those of the commonalty. So soon as Monsieur the Chevalier de Montmagny became aware of the wishes of the King and the Queen, and learned on the arrival of the ships that their Majesties had appointed Monsieur d' Ailleboust to the Government of the country throughout the whole extent of the River St. Lawrence, he not only received the order with honor and respect, but he further manifested a generous magnanimity by making, with much display, all necessary preparations for the reception of the new Governor. The latter was afterward received by all orders of the country, who paid him their compliments. Us] Even the Savages wished to take part in it; and they delivered a short harangue to him through the mouth of a Religious of our Society, who accompanied them. If one carries away our regrets, and leaves us an everlasting recollection of his prudence and his wisdom, the other, whose virtue is already known in this new world, gives us, I may say, not only a hope but an assurance that the fruits that are already well advanced will come [page 131] to maturity, and that the Kingdom of God will continue to extend itself and to increase throughout these regions. He spares no pains to return the compliment to his Predecessor; for he can find no honor great enough to acknowledge the merit and virtue of that brave Chevalier.

But I must not digress from my subject. The first vessel that brought us consolation through the return of Father Barthelemy Vimont, and the coming of three good Hospital Nuns, which caused great rejoicing in their house—also brought us sorrow through the number of sick persons on board, who were carried to that house of charity and mercy. It seldom happens that sickness breaks out [6] in the ships that come to this country; if the voyage be somewhat rough on the sea, it does not generally affect bodily health. Some infection caught in France or the great heat that they experienced near the Azores, or the spoiling of badly selected food, or all these things together? brought on I know not what epidemic in this case, which caused the death of some, and suffering to a good many others. Monsieur de Repentigny was carried off in less than twelve days; but by a special blessing, his death, says the Father who attended him until he had drawn his last breath, was precious before God, so greatly resigned was he to his will. The youngest of the three Nuns called Mother Catherine de St. Augustin, was at the very gates of death,—or, rather, the gates of Paradise. But her Spouse wished to try her still longer by sufferings, and he restored her health. Her vocation to this new world is rather remarkable. Her zeal led her to desire Crosses with affection; and her fathered who feared the danger, so strongly [page 133] opposed her departure that he presented a petition [7] to the Parliament of Rouen to prevent her leaving the Convent of Mercy at Bayeux, where she was a Nun. This poor little Dove was in great distress, and her relatives were resisting her, when her father happened to cast his eye on the Relation of last year; and he was so deeply affected, in reading of the horrible tortures suffered by the good Father Isaac Jogues, that that which would apparently confirm hint most stubbornly in his opposition caused him to relent. " Is it true," he said, "that they suffer so nobly for God in those countries? I wish my two daughters to go there. I refused one, and now I give them both." On this point a contest arose. Those two sisters, who were Nuns in the same institution, both desired to sacrifice themselves, while but one was needed. The Holy Ghost caused the lot and the Cross to fall to the younger, and the tears and regrets to the elder.

The other two Nuns, called Mother Anne de l’Assomption and Mother Jeanne de sainte Agnes, came, one from the Community of the Hospital Mothers of the city of Dieppe—which is [8] the nursery of the other houses, and which gave us the first Nuns for the Hospital of Quebec; the other from the hostel Dieu of Vennes in Brittany. God overcame all the obstacles that impeded the journey, and brought them safe and sound to their little house, which impatiently awaited that aid.

The news that is related on the arrival of the ships very often resembles the days and years of Jacob; if there be good news, there is also very frequently bad. We received one piece of information highly advantageous to many Savages of the upper nations. [page 135] Madame the Princess, the kindness of whose heart extends to the utmost confines of this new world, has declared herself the Mother and foundress of the Mission called that "of the Apostles" in the nation commonly known as the Tobacco nation. She wishes to contribute to the conversion of those peoples; and while her son Monseigneur the Prince enlarges the Kingdom of France, she tries to extend the limits of the Empire of Jesus Christ.

I will finish this Chapter with the death [9] of two young Frenchmen, who have been greatly regretted in this country on account of both their virtue and their knowledge of languages. One was named François Marguerie and the other Jean Amiot. While crossing the great River opposite three Rivers, in a Savage Canoes they were drowned in sight of the French, without its being possible to render them any assistance. Both were brave and Skillful; and, what is to be prized above all, they led, in the opinion of the whole country, a most innocent life. A storm suddenly arose; their bark canoe, which was worthless, split open and caused them to lose their lives.

It was Jean Amiot who last year captured a Hiroquois who amid the fires sang these words: " Antaiok" (thus the Hiroquois and Hurons called him) "is the cause of my going to Heaven. I am very glad of this, and am grateful to him for it." While on his way down to Quebec some time before his death, to obtain leave from Monsieur the Governor to lead a party of French against the Hiroquois, he challenged all the young men to a race, either with snowshoes on their feet; or without snowshoes. Some of them entered the lists against him, but he [page 137] carried off the victory. He was so good-humored that even the vanquished loved and respected him. He was adroit in turning aside evil conversations, or in kindly chiding those who swore or indulged in imprecations; and by this means he prevented a great deal of harm, and offended no one—for his innocence, with his reputation for courage, protected him. He had a most special and constant devotion for St. Joseph, which he had acquired in the house of Sainte Marie, in the Huron country, where he was brought up. As She exposed himself hourly to the dangers and alarms that the Hiroquois caused us, he said to one of our Fathers: " If I should die I desire that this timber and these other materials, which I am preparing in order to build a house, be employed in erecting a small Chapel in honor of St. Joseph." He had made a vow never to refuse anything that might be asked of him in the name of that great Saint. He dedicated to him his walks, his journeys, his battles; and,:[11] when they spoke of a flying camp against the Hiroquois, he said: "If I were permitted to name that little army I would call it the army of St. Joseph." That chaste Spouse of the Virgin had obtained for that young warrior the purity of an Angel. Those who knew him most intimately assert that he had never fallen into any mortal sin, though he was exposed to a thousand dangers; and was so pressingly solicited that, like Joseph of old, he had to leave his robe or his mantle behind. It was God's will that he should rank among the virgins. He was about to be married, when he died. His comrades were Surprised at his modesty for he made love like an angel, as it were. [page 139] Many have believed that God snatched him away in his youth, so that the credit and esteem that he gained by his courage and skill might not affect his innocence or break down his virtue.

I have heard him relate that, having one day gone out hunting where some Hiroquois lay in ambush, he was seized with a great fear,—a thing that never happened to him, for he was brave to the last [12] degree, though prudent, for his courage was based Upon the reliance that he placed in God. He endeavored several times to advance, but all he did was to move around in the woods, and he could never get any farther. He prayed to his Father, St. Joseph, and at the same time he said to a Huron who accompanied him: " Let us retire; it is not good to be here. ' on the following day, some Algonquins who went to the same place fell into a Hiroquois ambush. In conclusion, that brave soldier of St. Joseph performed a journey of twenty-five or thirty leagues after his death, to be buried at the residence of St. Joseph. [page 141]

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N the eighteenth of May, two canoes full of Hiroquois crossed the great River in sight of the fort of Montreal. They coolly landed [13] on the Island, and, without manifesting any apprehension, seven or eight of their band went straight to the French quarter. Monsieur de Maison-neufve, the Governor of the Island, sent out some soldiers to reconnoitre. When the Barbarians observed them, they halted, and made signs that they wished a parley. Two Interpreters were sent, and remained with them a very long time. " we have no war with the French," they said; " we war only on the Algonquins who alone are our enemies. Let us forget the past, and renew peace more strongly than ever." our Interpreters were delighted with this fine speech, and reciprocally assured them of the sincerity of our thoughts, and the kindness of our hearts. In a word, they became so confident that two Hiroquois passed in among the party of French, while one of the two interpreters went to join the Hiroquois, for both sides spoke to one another only from a distance. Monsieur de Maison-neufve, who feared a surprise, went with some soldiers to the spot where this parley was going on; and, after having given [14] the Interpreter who was with the Hiroquois to understand thaw he should try to escape [page 143] on the following night, he took with him the two Hiroquois with the intention of sending them to Monsieur our Governor after the Interpreter should escape. The parley being ended, each one retired to his own quarters. The Interpreter passed the night with the Hiroquois, and the two Hiroquois with the French. Mutual inquiries were made for news; the Hiroquois asked what had become of one of their warriors, who had been taken prisoner by the French in the previous Autumn. The Interpreter did not wish to tell them how the poor wretch had been burned, so he endeavored to turn the conversation and to evade their question; but, when the Hiroquois persisted, he retorted: " And you, tell us what has become of Father Jogues and a Frenchman, who went to your country confiding in the plighted word of the people.' The Hiroquois, who were more cunning than they seemed, changed their tune at this retort. " Let us speak of pleasant things," one of them replied. " You will soon see at your gates the oldest and most prominent men of our country, who will come to ask the French fox peace; and to prove their sincerity they are bringing [15] some Dutchman with them." It must be admitted that there is goodness and simplicity among the French, who listened to these discourses with as much pleasure as if they came from innocent lips and hearts.

On the following day, as the Interpreter had not effected his escape,—either because no opportunity of doing so presented itself, or because he considered that he was bound to keep his word with people who have none to keep, and who make a profession of surprising us,—we were obliged, in order to get [page 145] him back, to give up the two hostages whom we had seized. When the Hiroquois received their people,—of whose return they had some doubts, owing to their own treachery,—they felt such joy that they approached our French unarmed, except one alone, who was more distrustful than the others. Now as we were more numerous than they, and well armed, it would have been very easy to capture them all, had we wished to do so.

We have been told that, at about that time, a Frenchman had wandered a little distance from his house. A Hiroquois who lay in ambush waited until he had [16] discharged his arquebus at some pigeons that he was pursuing, and then rushed at him; but the Frenchman bravely extricated himself from the danger. And flow rely on the fine words of those innocents ! In conclusion, they gave us a present of their game, while Monsieur de Maison-neufve had them taste some French bread; and as a proof of their good-will toward us, they stole the nets that had been set in the river at a spot quite close to the fort; this was their last adieu. One must never expect the Hiroquois to keep their word, unless they be influenced by some motive of fear or of hope, because they have no Religion, and their government is not such that, when an individual kills a Frenchman for his pleasure, he need fear any punishment.

If we had a considerable number of Hiroquois in our hands, and by delivering them up could obtain that the children of the principal men of the country be brought to us, the fear that the older ones would have of our doing an injury to the little ones would prevent them from attacking us unseasonably. But so long as they consider us incapable of doing them [page 147] any harm, or of [17] procuring them any great advantage, our kindness w ill not protect us from their treachery and cruelty. Let us continue our route, if you please.

On the thirtieth of the same month of May, some French canoes went to visit their nets that were set on the other side of the great River, opposite the fort of three Rivers. A Hiroquois, who lay hidden in the forest, observed their shallop and swam out to it. As he was alone, he was received without any distrust; and he did his best to explain, by signs, that he was a friend of the French. A Huron, who had become a Hiroquois in his captivity, appeared on the bank and called out, asking to be taken with his comrade. They approached him, held out their hands to him, and took him on board the shallop, where he displayed much affection toward the French, who did the same to him, but in much more innocent kindness. While these compliments were going on, their canoe made its appearance, paddled by three Hiroquois, their companions. Our people spoke to them, received them kindly, offered them fish, and invited them to visit the French with their comrades; but they still kept [18] aloof . When those who were in the shallop saw this, they withdrew, bringing back those two voluntary prisoners to Monsieur de la Poterie, the Governor of three Rivers; he put them in a secure place, and ordered those who were in the shallop to return at once with a reinforcement, to endeavor to attract the three other Hiroquois. They were found at the same spot where they had been left. Now, as they did not think that there were any Savages with us, they were almost on the point of following us, when a [page 149] Huron happened to speak, and that frightened them so much that they fled. Two Hurons and an Algonquin, who had slipped in among our people, started in pursuit. The Algonquin caught one, whom he wished to take alive; but, meeting with too much resistance, he killed him and tore off his scalp which he brought back in token of his victory. The two Others escaped into the woods.

Now, after several questions had been put to the two prisoners, the Huron confessed that, after having hunted near Richelieu from the month of February to that time, they had resolved before returning to their country, to [19] come and break the heads of some Algonquins, if they should meet any. I do not think that they would have spared the French one whit more, had any fallen into their hands. As to the Hiroquois, he protested that, as he owed his life to the French,—because, when he was captured by an Algonquin Captain, Monsieur the Chevalier de Montmagny had redeemed him and set him at liberty in the treaty of peace,—he protested, I say, that from that time he had felt love and respect for Onontio and for all the French; and that he had received a wound in the arm—of which he showed the scar—for having opposed him who unfortunately had slain Father Isaac Jogues. He added that, after the death of the Father, he had become the protector of the Frenchman who accompanied him; that he had forbidden him to go far from him, because he saw that his life was not safe; but that the young man, he said, had gone to get something, I know not what, that he had brought with him, and was killed with a hatchet by those who watched him. " I have affrays intended," he added, Is to give you information [page 151] of that treachery; but I have been unable to do so [20] until now, when I have cast myself into your lands.'' However it may be as regards this one, who seems more grateful than the others, there is no doubt that the Hiroquois would have gloried in massacring us if they could. It is one of their stratagems of war, when they meet bands composed of several nations, to call out aloud that they are at war only with one of those nations, and therefore they beg the others to remain inactive during the battle. In a word, they act every sort of personage, in order to deceive all classes of persons. Their might is their right; their interest is their fidelity; and their treachery, their politeness. Let us proceed.

On the twentieth of June, two canoes full of Hiroquois crossed the great River at midnight and landed a little belong three Rivers. Some of the boldest approached stealthily and quietly, to see if they could enter a place where a Frenchman lodged. The latter awoke, and called out in a loud voice: "Who goes there?" The Hiroquois were alarmed, and withdrew. But, as they were at a distance [21] of only about a gunshot from the fort, the sentry discovered them, and, finding that they did not answer his challenge, he notified the Corporal, who, suspecting that they were Hiroquois, brought the voluntary prisoner up to the bastion. He spoke in his own language and was heard by his countrymen. "I am alive," he said to them. " The French treat me like a friend; there is nothing to fear." on hearing these words, they asked that a shallop be sent to them. This was promptly done; nevertheless they did not dare to approach it very closely; but the chief of the band threw himself into the water to [page 153] join the French. He was kindly received, and taken to the fort with his countryman, whose feet were fettered; he hid the irons at first, for fear of frightening him. When they were both in the guard-house, and had been given something to eat, he opened his robe and showed the other the marks of his captivity. When his comrade saw those iron garters, he smiled; but it was not, in my opinion, with the best of feeling. They were allowed to converse at will; they did not tell us what the first part of their discourse was, but here is [22] the conclusion: " Our band," said the newcomer, " consists of a hundred men, four of whom are elders, and among the most notable of our country. If you will give my comrade his liberty, or if you will take him in a good shallop to our people, he will bring back some of them with him." His suggestion was carried out. The prisoner was accompanied by two well-armed shallops, and, as a mark of our confidence, he was allowed to enter the camp of his people,—whence, after a long parley, he returned, accompanied by two of his countrymen who voluntarily came with him to the fort of the French. We were thus in possession of four voluntary prisoners. When they were questioned more at leisure, it was seen that there was deceit in their words, for they admitted that the band consisted of only twenty-nine men, among whom there was no elder nor any man empowered to negotiate; that the rumor of the coming of the elders for tile purpose of negotiating peace was false; and that the Hiroquois should not be trusted more than they deserved. Nevertheless it was considered [23] advisable that one of the four should return to his own country, to inform the chief men among the [page 155] Hiroquois of the detention of the three others, so that they might not commit any foul deed against the French and their allies. When the time came to choose which of the four should be set free, each one tried to confer that honor upon his companion; each sought that favor for the others, and not one would accept it for himself; each one wished to risk his life with his cornrades, whom they considered in danger among the French. Owing to the uncertainty of success in this matter, they finally condemned the youngest to enjoy that liberty. He therefore embarked with the first prisoner, to be conducted by our French to his countrymen, who received him with open arms. But when he saw his comrade return to the French, according to his plighted word, he left his people and accompanied him,—saying that he wished to share the fortune of those with w hom he had just risked himself; that, moreover, those who were returning to their country had tongues, and could speak as well as he. These were [24] people skillful enough to surprise men, as well as animals; but they were caught in their own toils.

On the third of July, the Huron who had surrendered to the French with our first prisoner, as we have related above, told some of his countrymen that he was going to Montreal to get some beaver skins that he had deposited in the hands of the French. This opportunity was gladly seized for informing Monsieur de Maison-neufve of the inroads of our enemies, and of the detention of the four prisoners. But that perfidious Savage did not go far before he met another band of Hiroquois, for whom he was seeking. He gave them to understand that the four voluntary prisoners were very badly treated by the [page 157] French, and were sure to lose their lives After so black and treacherous a falsehood, on the following day, the fourth of the same month of July, an Algonquin discovered the tracks of the enemy; he notified Monsieur de la Poterie, who warned the inhabitants by the tocsin and by the discharge of the cannon, the usual signal for all to be on their guard Five Hurons [25] who were nearest the spot where the enemies were already in Conflict with two of our Frenchmen in charge of some cattle, ran up on hearing the voices and clamor of the combatants; they joined them and withstood the assault of more than eighty men At the sound of the fight, two armed shallops were sent by water but, before they could reach the scene of the combat, the Hiroquois had already killed one Frenchman and a Huron, and taken two French and two Hurons prisoners Nevertheless, they were so terrified when they saw two of their people fall upon the spot, slain by the hand of one Frenchman, and two others wounded, that they fled, although they were at least ten to one. One of the two French prisoners was a nephew of Monsieur de la Poterie, who had wandered a little too far while hunting, and had been caught in the toils without knowing how he had got there The Huron who was killed was a good Christian, and had been to confession on the previous Sunday, as had also the Frenchman The two Huron captives are not baptized; as to the French who are prisoners, there is strong evidence of their having led a good life They are, nevertheless, somewhat to blame for having exposed themselves too much, [26] knowing the enemy as they did When our four voluntary prisoners heard of this defeat, they considered their own [page 159] lives forfeited, as they would have regarded ours under similar circumstances. " Despatch us," they said; " we are dead; do not make us linger in pain." Some of them asked to be instructed before being put to death; but they were told that we were not so hasty in our judgments and actions as the Savages generally are. Here is another alarm.

On the fourteenth of the same month, saint Bonaventure's day, a man appeared on the other side of the village of three Rivers, waving a blanket in the air, as if he wanted some one to go to his assistance. A shallop was manned, but as it took too long to suit him, he made a small raft on which he embarked and proceeded straight toward those who were going to reconnoitre, calling out in French: Allons, allons! venez, venez!—"Come along! come, come!" on hearing these words, they thought that it was one of our two Frenchmen who had escaped; but finally they found that it was a young Huron, named Armand, who, through [27] having been at our Seminary, speaks a little French. He had been captured the previous year, and taken to the Hiroquois country, where he endured horrible tortures. As he is well known to the French, they received and embraced him affectionately. After having briefly answered the most pressing questions of the French, he said: " Take me to the house of prayer, and bring me a Father; I am very anxious to confess." I assure you that he was well prepared. Faith does wonders in the midst of dangers. After his Confession, and after his penance, which he wished to perform before going out of the Chapel, he exclaimed, as if he breathed freely once more: " Now I am free! Ah! how long I have desired to free myself from the [page 161] weight of my sins! Ah, how often in my captivity did I think of the house of God! I commended myself to the prayers of the Christians who are here, and of those who are in France." And then, changing his tone, he said in quite a gay and joyful accent: " Since we have relieved the mind, let us think of the body. If you will give me some dinner, you will oblige me. [28] I have eaten nothing for twenty-four hours." God knows how cheerfully we gave him some. Here is the news we have received from his lips:

  1. That he had escaped from a band of Hiroquois consisting of a hundred men, who held both sides of the river for three leagues below our fort.
  2. That about a fortnight before, at a distance of two days' journey from their own country, they had met the comrades of our voluntary prisoners; that band had told them that they were going to inform the country of the kind treatment that we gave four of their warriors who were in our hands; and that therefore these fresh troops had changed their war-like plans into a desire to prevent any harm being done to their comrades, and, for that purpose, had taxed themselves for the quantity of Porcelain beads that were needed to make up four collars which were to be presented to those who had the prisoners in their hands.
  3. That that plan was altered through their meeting, within eight days, those who were taking away our two Frenchmen whom they held captive; that that band was [29] angry with us through the perfidy of a Huron renegade of whom I have spoken in this Chapter. That treacherous Savage asserted that he had been commissioned by our prisoners to go and [page 163] tell their relatives to consider them as dead, so badly were they treated by the French. Armand could not refrain from giving him the lie. "I know the French well," he said; " they are people who keep their word, and who abhor cruelty."
  4. He reported to us that our two prisoners still had their clothes on when he had met them; that only some of their nails had been torn out; that he had asked the taller of them if he would like to write to three Rivers, and that he himself had prepared some bark that serves as paper, and had made some ink in his own fashion; that the Frenchman had in fact written, and had given him the letter, but their Captain wished to hold it, for fear that the Huron might, on account of it, seize the opportunity to escape. He added that they who conducted our French talked of keeping them alive, if we kept the Hiroquois. God grant that they remember that promise, if it has ever issued from their lips; for they take [30] so much pleasure in tormenting captives that there are rewards for those who display the most cruelty toward them, and the greatest butchers are considered most able and are best rewarded among this people.

Finally this good young man told us that his band was to go down secretly, to Quebec to surprise our Christian Savages; and that they have no intention of sparing the French, if they can entrap any.

After all the above news had been related, the four Hiroquois prisoners asked Monsieur de la Poterie to permit one of them to go and see these new warriors, to disabuse them of the wrong impressions that the wretched Huron renegade had conveyed to them. They said that by this means the hostile acts that they might yet commit against the French would [page 165] be averted; and that, if he who should be delegated did not return, the three others might be killed. This proposition was accepted, and a canoe was given to the eldest of the prisoners who went straight to his people, and, after having spoken to them, he returned at night. He called out before the door of his prison, and when he had [31] entered, he said that when the Hiroquois perceived him they posted themselves on both sides of the river to surprise him; and they would probably have done him an injury, had he not made himself known by his voice, by his name, and by his songs. " When they recognized me," he said, " they were seized with astonishment; but they were still more surprised when I assured them that my companions had suffered no more harm than I. Then they railed against the treacherous Huron who had given them wrong ideas of the goodness of the French. Seeing them so well disposed I told them that the best way to deliver us from your hands was to stop all hostile acts against the French, and to bring back their prisoners as soon as possible. Finally I gave them to understand that I was pledged to return and I took my leave after they had first promised me to follow faithfully the advice that I gave them. Moreover they begged the Captain of the French to send them provisions, and to order a cannon to be fired on my arrival at the fort to let them know that I have arrived safely, and have not come across any Algonquins on my return. [32] They were so afraid of that," said the negotiator, " that they gave me an arquebus with which to defend myself." Monsieur de la Poterie, it is true, had the cannon fired; but he did not deem it advisable to send them food. On the following day two canoes [page 167] detached themselves from their main body, came before the fort, just beyond the range of the cannon, and asked for food. Their comrades hurled a thousand insults at them from the top of a bastion,—reproaching them with not caring for them, because they did not go and get the two French prisoners who alone could set them free. I cannot positively assert that those voluntary prisoners had not some secret arrangement with their people, and some desire to make us fall into their ambushes. It is very probable that their going and coming, and their long parleys, were not always harmless,—especially as they write to us from the Huron country that the Hiroquois who were captured in that quarter had stated that it was their intention to surprise the fort of three Rivers this year; and that, in their songs, their imprecations were directed equally [33] against the French and the Algonquins. In any case, they awaited the misfortune that they did not foresee. The following Chapter will tell you of it; but, before commencing it, I shall write down an item of news that has just been brought to us.

On the twenty-eighth of the same month of July, twelve or thirteen Hiroquois lay in ambush at Montreal, in the corner of a wood adjoining a meadow where some mowers were cutting and gathering hay, while other men were cutting down the brushwood. Suddenly the report of some arquebus shots was heard, which brought down a Frenchman; and then the barbarians, after giving a loud yell, w ere observed running as fast as they could to cut off the others. But our people were not frightened; they seized their arms, and fired three shots at those who showed themselves, causing one or two to drop, who [page 169] were soon dragged into the wood by their comrades. This prompt resistance so astonished the perfidious foes that they disappeared in an instant. The poor Frenchman who was killed was one of the gentlest and best men of that settlement. [34] Now you may judge whether those whom I mentioned at the beginning of this Chapter were so very innocent when they promised wonders to the Interpreters o Montreal. [page 171]

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N the seventeenth day of July of this year, 1648, about a hundred Hiroquois—of whom I have spoken in the foregoing Chapter, and who had no wish to return to their own country with out striking some blow worthy of notice—approaches to within cannon-range of the fort of three Rivers Some Hurons among those who dwell in our settlements through fear of their enemies,—who, like sprites, infest the woods and rivers,—joined our French, and, with a small party of Algonquins, went to meet them. When the Hiroquois saw us advancing, they halted, and made signs that they wished to confer with us peaceably: and, at the same time, some [35] of them came forward between the two parties, to speak to us; our people, to the same number, approached them. They asked us to give or sell them some provisions. We replied that, ii they would go and get their French prisoners, they would receive every satisfaction. They pretended to be pressed by hunger, but we have since learned that these appearances were assumed in order to surprise us, for we found more than eighty sacks of Indian corn in their fort. When they found that we were on our guard, they withdrew, greatly dissatisfied. As they were turning away, a Huron, who was [page 173] a captive with their band, recognized a countryman among our party; he approached him quietly, and whispered to him that we were lost; that in a day or two we would be invited to a parley, and be surrounded on all sides; and that the Hiroquois were preparing their weapons for that purpose. After receiving that warning, we kept a vigilant watch. At night, the first of our voluntary prisoners who was often allowed liberty to go and see his countrymen, our enemies, returned from their camp, and told us on their behalf that [36] we were not to place any reliance on certain false rumors, that some evil-disposed persons might spread. As they had observed their Huron speaking with ours, they suspected that their plot was discovered; therefore, wishing to conceal it better, they promised that on the morrow they would send two of their people to our fort to transact business; but they begged us to send them back when we should have heard them. They half kept their word, for when our prisoner went to see them, he returned with only one who said that he was a relative of sieur Cousture who was formerly a captive in the country of those barbarians.

At the same time that this new negotiator was preparing to return, some canoes appeared paddling to the North of the great river, along the banks where the French are settled; and, at the same moment, on the South bank the Hiroquois were observed embarking in numbers and paddling with all their might in pursuit of those two canoes. The tocsin was sounded; the French and the Savages armed themselves in an instant, and hastened to their assistance as fast as they could. But when our people came close to the spot where they had [page 175 observed those [37] canoes, they suddenly heard a great discharge of many arquebuses, without being able to discern whether it was a real fight or a feint; for all this passed in the woods. Remembering the warning that had been given them, they thought that it was a stratagem and retraced their steps. Hardly had they reached their post when a rumor spread that two hundred Hurons had just been defeated, and that the fray that we heard arose from that combat. At this news the blood froze in their veins; all hung their heads, without saying a word; they considered themselves almost guilty of the death of so many men, through having mistaken a reality for a feint or a dream. While sorrow devoured the hearts of the French and the Savages, suddenly a Huron canoe appeared, followed by two Hiroquois canoes that seemed to be pursuing it. Each one called out to embark and help the poor Hurons. Two canoes were promptly manned and went to meet them, while many people spread themselves along the beach. When those in the Huron canoe saw the two canoes approaching it, they thought at first that they contained Hiroquois; they continued [382 to advance; finally they recognized and saluted one another and went in company toward our settlement. It was found that those two Hiroquois canoes were two canoes that had been taken from the enemy, and were manned by Hurons. In the Huron canoe we perceived Father François Bressany, who lifted his voice before a great crowd of people that ran up to get news, and called out aloud: " Let us go and thank God, who has just given us the victory. Our Hurons have defeated the Hiroquois who prowled around your doors. Many [page 177] enemies lie dead on the field; eighteen or twenty prisoners are in bonds, and the young men are pursuing the fugitives." This glad news rejoiced our hearts all the more that sorrow had saddened them; all hastened to the Chapel, where the Te Deum was chanted; then we embraced the Father who told us how it had occurred.

The Hurons, he said, did not come down last year to the French through fear of the enemies, who on the one hand threatened the country, and on the other beset all the roads. But the necessity of obtaining hatchets and other French goods [39] compelled them to expose themselves to all those dangers. Two hundred and fifty men, led by five brave Captains, resolved to die, or to pass through in spite of all the enemy's resistance. In that band there are Christians and Catechumens to the number of over 120. Those good Neophytes have never failed to say their prayers publicly twice a day, all together, in the presence of the Pagans. The Hurons have on former occasions come down in still larger numbers, but never in so good order. After a journey of over two hundred leagues without meeting any one, when they drew near the fort of three Rivers they pushed their canoes in among the rushes, to put themselves in proper attire previous to showing themselves before the French,—that is, they painted their faces in various colors; they greased their hair; in a word they wished to appear in orderly condition. Some canoes that acted as an advance-guard pushed out toward the open water, and were observed at the same time by the French and by the enemies. The latter, who were on the other side of the river, embarked with [page 179] unequaled celerity, [40] to swoop down on those canoes; while the French ran, as fast as they could, along the beach to succor them. But they arrived, as I have already said, during the fight that was going on in the woods, and retired, thinking that it was a feint. When the advance-guard of the Hurons perceived the enemy, they immediately gave notice to the Captains who at once threw aside their oils and paints to seize their weapons. They ran, as fast as they could, to the spot where the Hiroquois were to disembark, but they arrived too late; so they collected and disposed themselves in the form of a semi-circle or crescent, to meet the first assault of the enemy, and to hem them in should they come to blows and lance-thrusts. The Hiroquois advanced furiously,—without, however, uttering their usual yells and war-cries, which serve them as trumpets and drums to dispel the warriors' fear and to intimidate the enemy. When almost close enough to scorch their doublets, as the saying is, they fired a volley from their arquebuses, which our Hurons received lying on the ground; after delivering their volley, they charged, not expecting [41] to meet with so much resistance. But the Hurons rose, and, uttering loud yells, they received their enemies with heavy discharges from their pieces; those poor people were taken by surprise, and fled in every direction, with the exception of one squad who tried to defend themselves with their knives; but they were soon surrounded by our people. And, if the Hurons at the base of the crescent had not given way at the first report of the arquebuses, not one of the enemy would have escaped; but those cowards left a door open by which many got away. Three Frenchmen [page 181] were present in that battle,—Father Bressany, who ran about everywhere, inspiring the Hurons with courage, and watching carefully to see if any one needed his assistance; and two others, who fought bravely, but, when the melee began, they stopped short, not knowing whom to strike for they could not distinguish the Hiroquois from the Hurons. One of these two Frenchmen observed a terrified Hiroquois; he went up to him, clapped him on the shoulder, and said to him: " Courage, my brother! let us fight bravely." He took him for one of our party; but a Huron came up, fell upon him, and took him away, whereat the Frenchman was [42] astonished. That prisoner afterward sang that he had been captured by a Frenchman; for he imagined that he who had clapped him on the shoulder had said to him: " Thou art my prisoner." When the battle was over, the swiftest warriors pursued the fugitives, some of whom they captured and killed, bringing back their heads and scalps; but the desire of appearing and refreshing themselves at three Rivers, after the fatigues of a journey of over two hundred leagues, prevented them from completely following up their victory, and a great many escaped.

They wrote to us from Montreal that one of the fugitives ran as far as there, crossed the river, and went to surrender to the French. He entered the courtyard of the hospital without meeting any one except Madamoiselle de Boulogne, sister of Madamoiselle d’Ailleboust,{18} to whom he held out his arms. Those who know that the modesty and bashfulness of that good Lady cause her a terrible fear of those barbarians said, through the respect which they feel for her gentleness and virtue, that she had; [page 183] captured a Hiroquois; and that she accomplished more with her prayers and her rosary, which she was saying at the time, than the soldiers with their real swords and muskets.

After that defeat Father Bressany went on ahead, as we have stated, to carry the welcome news to our French. The Hurons followed some time afterward, in good order, bringing their prisoners and making them sing and dance after their fashion. It was a fine sight,—about sixty canoes floating quietly down the great River, and all the Hurons gravely seated in them, keeping time with their voices and their paddles to the songs and airs sung by their enemies. But it was a sad and doleful sight to cast one's eyes on the victims who will perhaps become food for the flames, and for the stomachs of the barbarians.

They gave a prisoner to the Algonquins, who soon despatched him saying that their old cruelties must be abandoned. When the Hurons observed their gentleness, they said that before long every one would be baptized in their country, and they would then adopt the usages of the Christians. They burned a Huron renegade, who had been taken among the Hiroquois. I learn that the hatred that they had conceived for him arose from the fact of his having abandoned the Faith among their enemies; and this decided them to treat him in a [44] very cruel manner.

When all those people had refreshed themselves to some extent, and Monsieur the Chevalier de Montmagny had arrived at three Rivers, they began to discuss affairs. The chief men, who were present at a council, brought four words, represented [page 185] by five presents. It should be observed, by the way, that what passes for a word and for a present at public meetings must be of some considerable value. The first of these presents was but a salute and an honor that they paid to Monsieur the Governor, and to all our French. The second, a request that the warehouses be opened for trade. The third, a prayer that the price of the goods be reduced. The fourth and the fifth were in thanksgiving for the trouble taken in going to teach them in their country amid so many dangers, and through so many enemies who threaten but fire and flames. They gave two presents for that purpose, because, they said, that was of much greater importance than anything else on earth. They begged us to persevere constantly, stating that the country had a great affection for [453 a doctrine that promised a life as sweet in its delights as it was of long duration.

Monsieur the Chevalier de Montmagny also gave them presents in return,—one, among others, to soothe the minds of the country that had been disturbed on account of the murder committed on the person of a Frenchman. The Hurons uttered a thousand insults against the murderers, so that Monsieur de Montmagny—seeing that they disapproved of the crime, for which they had given satisfaction according to the laws of their country—showed them by this present that in his mind the dead man had come to life again. He gave another present to urge them earnestly to keep the promise that they had given, that they would willingly listen to the Preachers of the Gospel. It is a strange thing that, as a rule, men yield to God only through calamities. Since [page 187] plagues, war, and famine have fallen on these peoples, the elect have been distinguished from the reprobate; the latter have died like beasts, while the former have hastened to become children of God and a great many have ascended to Heaven.

Finally, when all these matters were concluded those good people embarked in their [463 little bark vessels, taking with them, in addition to Father Bressany four other Fathers of our Society, and one of our Brethren,—namely, Father Gabriel Lalemant, Father Jacques Bonin, Father Adrian Greslon, Father Adrian d'Aran, and our Brother Nicolas Noirclair,—together with 25 or 30 Frenchmen. It is a great blessing to see the courage and zeal of those good Fathers. The blood and the deaths of those who have preceded them animate them; so great joy showed itself on their countenances that one would have said that they were all about to take possession of a Crown and an Empire. And what seems to me still more surprising is, that on such occasions young men are to be found who, incited by the example of the good Fathers, wish to run the same risks, and who protest that zeal for the salvation of souls, and not the hope of transitory lucre, makes them undertake so long, so rough, and so dangerous a journey.

We have learned since their departure that, when this small army of Hurons reached the point of the Island of Montreal, it divided. Some wished to pass by the settlement of the French who are on that Island, as they had promised Monsieur the Governor; while the others [47] wished to take the other side as being shorter, easier, and less dangerous. We greatly fear that this division will bring misfortune [page 189] upon them; for the Hiroquois, who are irritated by their losses, will not remain at rest; it will be easy for them to destroy those poor people if they find them separated. I pray Our Lord to be their guide in their devious paths, their support in their fatigues, and their arm and their strength in battle. [page 191]

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SOME time ago, a Savage of the upper nations, who was baptized when in danger of death, received from the hand of God both the life of the body and the life of the soul, almost at the same time. But having wandered from the place where he was to have been instructed more thoroughly and more at leisure, he forgot his duty to such an extent that, when he came to see us again, he was in a somewhat bad frame of mind. But the sight of the good Christians touched him, and inspired him with a desire to enter the Church, of which [48] he considered himself most unworthy. A good Christian who saw that he was very pensive, said to him " Follow me and do what thou shalt see me do. Offer to God the same prayer that I shall offer to him." Thereupon, he knelt at the entrance of the Chapel which was crowded with people; he kissed the ground several times, and publicly asked pardon from God, supplicating those who were assembled to unite their prayers to his, in order to obtain the remission of his sins and of those of his comrade. To the latter, when he saw him prostrate on the ground, he addressed these words: " Speak in thy heart, and acknowledge that thou art not worthy to kiss or to walk on the floor of this house. Reproach thyself with this, and say in the depths of thy soul: ' I am a worm, creeping [page 193] beneath the soil, and do not deserve that men should think of me. can I, then, dare to present myself before God? But since he is good, and I am sorry for my sins, he will have compassion on me.' " Here is a very pregnant lesson. The best thing on that occasion was that a strange Savage, a friend of the penitent, who saw his comrade in that position, thought that he also was obliged to humiliate himself as well as the others. This is [49] but a slight sample of what occurs from time to time. As this fervor is neither commanded nor compulsory, it is praiseworthy as regards the Pagans, who might attribute to the body of the Church the faults of its members. But let us speak of other things.

A Father of our Society, who arrived in these countries a year ago, writes from three Rivers to Quebec in these terms: " I would like to enclose with this a specimen of the consolation that I now experience when I actually see in our settlement an assembly of five or six of the principal nations of this new world, who are almost all Christians,—singing, each in their own tongue, the praises of the great Master of both Savages and those who are not Savages. Formerly, I read the Relations on this subject over and over again, and always with admiration and satisfaction. But permit me to tell you that I am beginning to esteem them less, so slightly do the copies resemble the original. It is one of those spectacles that are more easily imagined than described."

Another says that he has taken the greatest pleasure in watching a contest or emulation that has been carried on among the Savages. A number of strangers who came to [50] St. Joseph made a parade of [page 195] their war-songs. Every day their cabins resounded with the noise of their voices, that breathed of nothing but Mars and his arms. The Christians, what wished to lower the pride of these boasters, began to intone their hymns and canticles with so much graces and devotion " that they charmed me, " says the Father; " and, although they repeated them very often they seemed more beautiful to me every day. " Much sequence must not be expected in this Chapter, for good sentiments contain more love than Rhetoric.

A good Neophyte who found himself far away in the woods, with a medley of Christians and Pagans invited them every day to come to the prayers that he publicly offered in his cabin,—notifying them of the Festivals, that these might be observed in a more solemn manner than the other days, by singing hymns and saying their beads in a cabin set apart for the purpose, and by listening to the elders who might wish to speak in favor of the Faith. When] this good man saw that some, who were less fervent only half listened, [51] he plainly told them the truth about themselves. " When you will be at St. Joseph, you will go to prayers like the others; you will be considered very fervent, and they who think so will be mistaken. In whom do you believe? Is it in God, or in the Fathers who teach use If you believe in God, why do you not pray to him as much among the trees as among men? God has made the trees as well as men. He is everywhere. If you believe only in men, you will not go to Heaven. The Fathers are men as we are; they do not say: ' Believe in us;' but they say to us: ' Believe in God.' They are only Interpreters, they are like people who relate true tales." [page 197]

Meanwhile, a Pagan had crept at night into the cabin of this good Neophyte, to seek some girl or woman, according to their former custom. This truly Christian man reproved him with an Apostolic freedom and zeal. The Pagan—who did not dare to den him any injury, because he is a man of authority—inflicted, through some fury or I know not what frenzy, a knife-wound in his own thigh. When our Neophyte [52] saw the blood flowing abundantly, he said to him: " What, have my words turned into a knife? Adieu; I am going away. I see very well that, if I were to speak much longer to you, my words would soon become a javelin that would kill you." Thereupon, he decamped and went to hunt in another place, where his wife and his daughter fell ill. As he always carried holy water with him, he gave a little of it to his wife to drink; and with some more of it he made the sign of the Cross on the forehead, and on the breast of his little girl, saying to them: " Lift up your hearts to God and say to him: ' Cure me, if it be thy will. Thou canst do all things. If thou say of me: " Let her be cured! " I shall be cured. If thou wilt not cure me, follow out thy own purpose. I do not believe in thee only that my health may be restored.' " " I knelt beside her," he added, " and I said to him who has made all: ' They are sick, as thou seest well. Do all as thou wiliest. If thou say that they will be cured, thou wilt do me a pleasure. If thou say not a word, I will say but this: " Take them to Heaven."' I know not," said he, "what are the thoughts of him who has made all; but I do know that one of them was suddenly cured and the other became better at once, and shortly [S3] afterward she recovered her [page 199] health." God willingly converses with the simple.

When this good man wished to return in the Spring to the residence of St. Joseph, some Sorcerers, or rather Charlatans, of Gaspe told him that he would perish in the floating ice. In fact, there was such a quantity of it in the great river that it seemed to be covered thereby. " But," said the Jugglers, " if thou wish, we will turn away the ice-floes. Let us invoke our Demon with our chants and our drums." " You are greatly mistaken," he replied. " Has the Demon made the ice, that he can dispose of it? am going to pray, right before you, to him who has made it." And kneeling down he uttered these words: " O thou who art good and who hast made all, thou disposest of that ice as of everything else. It is not the wicked Manitou who disposes of it, but thou who art all-powerful. If thou will that we depart to-morrow, ordain that the ice may disappear, and there will be no more. If thou will not that we should leave, we will say: ' Thou art the master; let us not depart.' " on the morrow, truly a most remarkable fact,—either because the ice-floes that were seen that day [54] were the last, or because God in his goodness diverted them to the other side of the great River,—in any case, the river was quite free, and our Christian laughed at the Sorcerers. " Well ! " said he, " are your songs and your Manitous the masters of the ice-floes?" " Depart, if thou wilt," they replied; " but if thou depart thou art lost, for others will come that will overwhelm thee." " Has he who has turned them away," he retorted, " lost his power? Can he not prevent them from returning?" They set out, and finally reached port safely. [page 201]

A young girl 17 or 18 years of age, who was sought in marriage by many persons because of her well-formed body and her excellent qualities, fell dangerously ill. Seeing herself in danger of death, she said this prayer to Our Lord: " I am very glad to be sick, and to die before having been married. It is thee whom I love; I love not men. Dispose of me as thou will. I thank thee because I am ill, and because I suffer, and because I shall die; for thou wiliest it and I am well pleased. The Virgin will present me to thee after my death." However weak that poor child was, she [55] sat up several times a day to say her prayers to God, or to recite her rosary. These words were frequently heard to fall from her lips: " Neither death, nor sickness, nor sufferings any longer afflict me; but I am sad because I cannot go to the house of prayer with the others. Shall I not have the consolation, before I die, of entering it to receive him whom I shall soon see in Heaven? " so careful was she of the purity of her soul that she asked to be allowed to confess every day. He who especially attended her says that she never committed any mortal sin; that her heart was truly innocent, that she took pleasure only in things relating to Eternity. A short time before her death, after she had received all the Sacraments of the Church, she was tormented by two or three very violent convulsions. When she regained consciousness, she spoke to the Father who watched her and prayed beside her: " Adieu, my Father," she said to him with her mind and her speech as clear as ever; " Adieu, your prayers are granted. Withdraw when you please. Here is Jesus my Spouse, who takes me to Heaven; " and thereupon she expired. Flesh [page 205] and [56] blood had not inspired her with those sentiments for she was the daughter of a very bad father whom God had removed from the face of the earth by a public punishment. What fury must not that man feel on seeing from amid the flames his child in the midst of glory ? which he had forfeited through having ever been leagued against the Faith and against the truth, of which he had a considerable knowledge.

The Nuns of the Hospital, who have always had some sick French people under their care, also fed throughout the winter a small cabinful of Savages, who edified us greatly. The good Mothers with their accustomed zeal did not fail to make them pray to God every day in their own language; with both hands they bestowed charity, not only for the body but for the soul. I remember that, when I visited those poor people, a woman said from time to time: " But will my Father who is in Heaven pardon my sins? I hate myself. I would like to be torn to pieces for having offended him." " I am often sad," said another, " because I have no sense. I cannot remember the prayers that we are made to recite every day." When any one of them was asked whether it was [57] a long time since he had confessed, if a fortnight had passed without his having done so, he would complain that he was not heard often enough. It must be admitted that, if the Hiroquois did not keep our Neophytes away from our settlements, and if strangers did not come and mix with them, we would have choice souls as regards their candor and their simplicity. The Captain of Tadoussac was ill at St. Joseph, and he showed that God triumphs in the midst of barbarism. The Father who has charge of the Savages went to visit [page 205] him, and he said to him: "My Father, all my hopes rest in Jesus. This is what I often say to him: ' Thou knowest all; here I am; dispose of me.'" lichen he was taken to the Hospital, the Father told him that he wished very much that his health might be restored Pointing to a Crucifix, which he had caused to be placed before his eyes, he said: 'is It is he who will decide; he must be allowed to do as he wills.'' On the following day he said in a few words that he would have liked to recover his health, but when he found that that desire grew on him, he suspected that the Devil wished to tempt him. He confessed twice that day, seeking for his slightest faults with as much discernment as a Religious could have had; then addressing himself to the [58] Father, he said, a day before his death: " I certainly saw a Demon; he frightened me but I told him that I believed in him who has made all; and that, as for him, I despised him. He disappeared all at once. I was also troubled by dreams; but I remembered that they who believed in God no longer believed in dreams. At present, I feel a great peace. I see very well that it is the will of him who has made all that I should go with him; and I am happy to do so. It is for him to decide. Tell the Savages who have gone to war that I am well pleased to go to Heaven." It is a strange thing that men brought up in barbarism should die with so great confidence. One would say that they see with their eyes the happiness that they are to enjoy. When made to pray to God for Madame the Foundress of the Hospital, he did so with clasped hands, and with his eyes lifted up to Heaven, in a position that showed that he was touched. Those good people do not philosophize as much as do our [page 207] Europeans. When once they have received the Faith, and when they believe that he who obeys God's commands will be saved, and that, if he commits a sin, it will be forgiven, provided he be really [59] contrite and have confessed, they expect that God on his part will infallibly do what he has promised; and, in truth, they are right. I shall here mention, as the conclusion of this Chapter, a ceremony of the Savages that has afforded us consolation, for they are beginning to give quite a Christian character to the harmless usages that they have derived from their infidel ancestors. It has often been mentioned in the previous Relations that it was the custom of the Savages to bring back to life those among them who were persons of note, or who were greatly beloved by them during their lifetime. This is still done, in order that the orphans may not be abandoned; for he to whom the name of their father is given takes charge of the children. A Christian Captain of St. Joseph who wished to bring one of his relatives back to life, gave a feast at which about 50 guests were present. I should say, in passing, that it is by means of feasts and presents that most of their affairs are transacted. When each one had taken his place,—which is always the first he finds,—this Captain delivered the following harangue: '' Were I not a Christian, and had I not the belief that we shall all rise again, I would have every reason to grieve for the [60] loss of my nephew last year; his death would sadden my heart. But—inasmuch as life is taken away from us only to be again restored, as we are to see and meet one another again—it is not a death, but an absence; and consequently I take this resurrection of my nephew, that [page 209] I now accomplish, as a symbol of the true resurrection to which we look forward. Therefore, I adopt such a one for my nephew; and he will remind me that my nephew is not dead." Thereupon, he gave a handsome present to the newly-adopted one who replied, most appropriately: " This present, which recalls to me the article of our creed on which the Faith of our resurrection is founded, also reminds me that I am a Christian. I am one, in truth, and I hold with you, and with all who are baptized, that we must not grieve for the death of those who are to live again. Let us therefore rejoice, not in the image of the resurrection that we express by our ceremony, but in the true resurrection to which we look forward.'' After these harangues, they had to sing, according to their custom. One of the most notable lifted up his voice and chanted one of their [61] songs, of which the following are the words: " He who is to bring me back to life is he who consoles me." That was the whole of his song, consisting of various tunes, to which he always adapted the same words. God grant that they may of themselves change their ancient customs into actions replete with devotion and piety. [page 211]

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SAVAGE Captain approached a Father of our Society, and said to him: " I beg thee, my Father, to come with me to the house of the virgin sisters who teach our children. " The Father told him that those good maidens would understand him, and that he needed no interpreter. " I wish," he replied, " to speak to them on a matter of great importance." When they were both in the parlor with the Mother Superior of this little Seminary, the good Neophyte drew out a small copper cross that could open and shut, and said to them: " All that is on earth is nothing; what relates to Heaven is of value and consequence. This little cross would like to contain a particle [622 of the sacred bones that are honored on the Altars, of those whose souls are in Paradise. Consider, both of you, whether I am worthy to bear it; it is an important matter; whatever you decide shall be done.'' The Superior, who was greatly edified by such piety, granted his request, for which the good Neophyte was as grateful as if he had found a rich treasure.

The good Mothers are exceedingly charitable; the difficulties of the country do not frighten them; their Seminary refuses no girl, whether French or Savage; alms are bestowed at their house at all times; their hearts are greater than their possessions. Boarders [page 213] in France are no burden on the Monasteries where they are educated, but it is otherwise in Canadas. Not only must the little seminarists be fed and taught; they must also be clothed, and, on their departure, considerable alms are given them and oftentimes also to their parents, so poor are they. Not long ago, when a little Huron girl left this holy and charitable house to be taken back to her own country, the good Mothers not only clothed her from head to feet, but they also gave [63] presents to her parents, to manifest the satisfaction that the child had given them. That is not all; food had to be provided for her and for those who came for her; in a word, you would say that they would cheerfully incur all the expense necessary to lead and to conduct them to Paradise.

Another Algonquin Seminarist had been fed, educated, and cared for during many years at the Seminary; the good Mothers gave her the small articles of furniture that she needed on the occasion of her marriage, and their charity went beyond the seas to obtain her marriage portion from a Lady of merit, whose piety is probably already rewarded a hundredfold on earth, and will be one day in Heaven. It is truly seeking the glory of Our Lord, to provide for the necessities of others amid the needs of a house that is itself in straitened circumstances.

They fed a Huron whose piety delighted all who knew him. However cold it might be throughout the winter, he never failed to go through snow and ice to hear a Mass in the parish church before day-light, notwithstanding the fact that he afterward went [64] to that which was said every day in the [page 215] Church of the good Mothers. That man daily remained upon his knees so long a time that the French were astonished and edified. He knew not what it was to be angry; his greatest discontent arose from his not being spoken to about Eternal truths as long as he would have liked. He returned this year to his own country and we trust that his fervor will benefit his countrymen.

Some Savages accused themselves one day, saying that their hearts were full of malice. The Father who heard them asked them whether that malice dwelt long in their souls. " No," they said; " but still it enters them." " But again," said the Father, " what do you do when so bad a guest visits you?" " For my part," said one, " when I feel that anger comes to inflame my heart, I say to my soul: ' They who pray and who believe do not get angry; ' and at once the fire cools down and is sometimes completely extinguished." " I am more wicked," said his companion; " for thoughts of hatred and thoughts of lewdness come to me, [65] which soil the whole of my heart." " But what dost thou on such occasions? " asked the Father. " I am afraid," he replied; " then I commence to pray to God, and all passes away." The holy Ghost is a great Master; he does more in one moment, when he pleases, than the Doctors in a hundred years.

Were I to say that some young men, when solicited by vile creatures, have caused grace to triumph over nature, it would be merely a repetition although the affair is quite recent.

A person who was sick in the midst of the woods suffered pain and anguish that brought her to the [page 217] verge of despair. As her poor afflicted body wished to slumber, her soul perceived a Father, who approached, and taught her the joy of suffering and the cruelty of this miserable life. The poor creature was so consoled and so filled with courage in an instant, that she defied all the afflictions of earth and of Hell.

A Savage Captain, observing a young man who seemed to pay little heed to the advice of a Father, said to him: " Knowest thou that it is not the fear of death, or the desire of living, or [66] the hope of any earthly good, that has induced me to embrace prayer? Since I possess the Faith I no longer fear anything. Learn therefore that I have spoken to the Captain of the French and have begged him to banish all who resist the truth or who abandon it Speak now! What dost thou? What is thy intention ? Thy heart and thy mouth will make thee guilty or innocent, will retain thee or expel thee hence!"

The same man went into a cabin where there were several Pagans, and made this short speech to them: " But, again, what prevents you from opening your eyes to the truth? Are not your ears pierced? Is what we say so monstrous that it cannot enter theme If prayer be good, why do you not embrace it? see very well what prevents you. you fear that after your Baptism you will fall into drunkenness if you find any liquor. But is it possible that the mere thought of the injury that those liquors cause us cannot prevent you from tasting them? Keep firm and you will overcome that demon of the thoughtless and the foolish." [page 219]

A Nipissirinien became a Preacher to [67] a captain of his nation who had recently arrived at St. Joseph. As he had observed that the Captain listened to the discourse of one of our Fathers, he said to him, after the Father had gone out of his cabin: " Those people are admirable; they leave their country and come from the end of the world to teach us the road to Heaven. They never ask for anything, but they give; and, wherever they are, they do the same thing,—what one teaches, the other teaches. For my part, I have found their doctrine so just and so reasonable that I have embraced item love and honor them as my nearest relatives. " This good Neophyte gave to that soul the first coat, upon which fine portraits have since been drawn.

Another who was of the Abnaquiois nation was with a very sick Ethechemin. When he saw that his comrades intended to sing and to breathe on him in their fashion, he said to him: " My dear friend, in vain wilt thou have recourse to those sorceries, or rather those follies, of thy country. The God whom the Christians honor has created thee; he alone can [68] cure thee." These words, said opportunely, so touched him that when his people wished to doctor him in their way,—that is, by yells and uproar, of which they make use to drive away the demon who causes the death of men,—the sick man would never listen to them. " It is he who is adored in this place," he said, " to whom we must have recourse; the demon cannot cure me." His relatives applied to the Fathers, and said to them: " we leave our poor comrade with you. you know him who has made all; tell him to cure him, and assure him that [page 221] we will believe in him." I know not whether those poor abandoned people will keep their word in their own country, but I do know that God cured their countryman, contrary to their expectations.

A Frenchman who was going from Quebec to Saint Joseph perceived from afar a Savage who was walking before him. He was a Christian who thought that no eye could see him except that from which one cannot hide. He raised his eyes to Heaven and spoke to God, holding his rosary in his hand, and kneeling, with a devotion that not only touched the heart of the Frenchman, [69] but also no doubt won him who cannot resist love.

Even the children sometimes manifest feelings of devotion. A little boy aged between 8 and 9 years several times said these words to his mother when he saw that she did not hasten her baptism: " My mother, it is not right that thou shouldst not be baptized; my heart says: ' My mother will go into the fire; ' and then I am sad." The woman related this of her son, adding that she did not know where he had learned all the prayers that he recited every morning and every night, without being commanded by any one. The poor little fellow sometimes picked flowers with his comrade, and brought them to one of our Fathers to be placed on the Altar. The Father was pleased at this simple devotion and made them enter the Church where those little Angels offered both their prayers and their gift to Our Lord.

A little Seminarist of the Ursuline Mothers, who was very anxious to receive communion before being sent back to her parents, secretly took a small Agnes belonging to one of her companions. Her mistress caught her and chided her, saying: ' You are [70] [page 223] unworthy of communion; go and confess; you should fast for so grievous a sin." The poor child did so, contrary to the expectation of her good mistress, and came to her, saying: " I have done what you ordered me to do. Is there anything else to be done, that I may not be deprived of communion?" It requires no slight courage in a child to fast, and especially a Savage child, who takes after its parents; and they are as addicted to eating as drunkards are to drinking.

The children of the Savages, like those of Europeans, are little monkeys; they imitate everything they see done. It may be believed that, since the foundations of this new world were laid, they had never had any processions; but, as they see some from time to time, they have commenced to form processions in their own fashion. A few days ago, a small band of these little innocents was observed marching in order; one bore a Cross, another a banner, others candlesticks made in the Savage fashion or naturally formed. Some sang, while others walked two by two, as they had seen us do. All this teaches us [71] that Christianity is becoming founded and established among these peoples. The Hiroquois spoil everything,—they scatter the sheep from their fold, and keep them away from their Pastors; they banish them from their little Church in a word, that scourge is very heavy. God be praised at all times, and in all places; we must submit to his orders. He allows his Church to be afflicted, but it is his desire that those who have power to succor it should raise the standard for his glory. Let us change the subject.

A young Savage who spoke of the great perfidy of [page 225] the Hiroquois and of the horrible massacre that they had made of his countrymen, was asked what his sentiments were respecting those wretches. " I often pray to God for them," he replied, " and I say in my heart that I wish they would be baptized, and that they would have sense, and would go to Heaven. Those are my sentiments." Such thoughts are not common to all the Savages, who are vindictive to the last degree against their enemies. It is also true that it is impossible to love enemies, if one be outside of God.

This Savage gave evidence that a spirit more powerful than that of the world and [72] of the flesh dwelt in his heart. " Inasmuch," he said, " as we can show Our Lord by our sufferings the love and honor that we have for him, it seems to me that it is a good thing to suffer, and my soul often desires it." The Father who directs his conscience said to him one day, on his return from visiting a sick person: " I feel sorry when I see that person, whom I love, and whom thou also lovest, suffering so much and so long. " " And I, " replied the Savage, " rejoice at it. Hast thou not taught me," he added, " that those who suffer are beloved by God? Why therefore should one be sorry at being loved by him who is so lovable?" The Father admitted that he was right, and acknowledged in the bottom of his heart that the Savage had acted through grace, and he through a natural feeling of compassion.

A young boy, seeing his people on their return from hunting, exclaimed: " All goes well; to-day I shall eat fresh meat." " Knowest thou not," said some one to him, " that Christians eat none to-day it " " Thou art right," he replied; " not only will I not [page 227] eat any, but I do not even wish [73] to look at it." Having learned that the Christians fasted on Ember days and in Lent, he wished by all means to imitate them. He was told that he was not old enough to be obliged to do so. " If I be not obliged," he replied, " neither am I forbidden to do so." He was permitted to do what was reasonable, considering his strength and his manner of living. Having gone to bed supperless one night, he awoke with a great appetite; he told one of our Fathers of it, and was given a piece of bread. He took it but did not touch it; when he was asked the reason he said: " I have not yet heard Mass." " Yes, but it will be said very late." " Well, I shall not die on that account," he said. At night he went to see some Hurons in their cabin, and they offered him something to eat. Now as he was fasting, and as it is an insult to a Savage to refuse what he gives you, he ate, but so little that he did not exceed what is usually eaten at a collation. His hosts noticed it, and told him that a good courage should not yield so soon; and that eating was natural to and necessary for man. To [74] this he gave no answer, except that they were not to press him to eat any more.

Only one Savage dwelt this year at Montreal, and he was blind; but, to compensate, he had virtue enough for twenty-five. " Ah," he said, " how often I praise God for having deprived me of my sight! for, otherwise, I would have been all my life a proud and arrogant man; I would have despised prayer; and the Hiroquois would have eaten me."

As he had taken the resolution not to smoke on the day that he received communion,—which is a rather difficult thing for a Savage, who prefers tobacco to [page 229] food and drink,—the Father who had charge of him told him one day that he might deceive him, and break his resolution in secret. He made a very neat reply: " Could I deceive God, even if I deceived a man? It is not to thee, my Father, that I made that promise, but to God, who cannot be deceived. That is why," he said, " I do not go to visit the French soldiers on the day that I have received communion, because they would invite me to smoke."

The Father took him to the Hospital one day, when it was snowing and [75] very cold; he held his cap in one hand and his rosary in the other. He said to the Father: " Let us say our rosary, since we are together." This devotion affected the Father. On another occasion, when he was near the Father, who was reciting his Canonical Hours, he remained for a considerable time without moving. The Father, who had well tried his patience, asked him how he had employed his mind during that time. " I rejoiced in my heart, because thou wert praising him who has made all. My soul said to him: ' I am glad that they who know thee praise and honor thee.' But sometimes I am sad because I have offended him; and, because I cannot praise him as you do, my heart is sick, and my soul knows not which way to turn. At times it seems to me that a person is speaking to me in the depths of my heart, and yet he says not a word. Dost thou hear me well ? " he said to the Father. " Dost thou understand well what I wish to say 7 When I hear the word in my heart, " he added, " which nevertheless is not a word, my soul is quite sad at having offended [76] God, and my eyes begin to weep before I realize it. At other times I am quite joyful, and yet tears fall from my [page 231] eyes. This did not happen to me before my Baptism. "

As the Father would not allow him to receive Communion as frequently as he wished, he complained lovingly: " Thou knowest not, my Father, how sad my soul is. If thou knewest thou wouldst grant it what it asks." A Frenchman broke the stick that he used to guide his steps; his heart was troubled, and he withdrew into his cabin, without saying a word; but he soon came out, and went to the Father. " I have no sense," he said; " I have been angry; I am going to the Church to pray for him who broke my stick. And thou, my Father, pray for me, for I am more guilty than he. But thou shouldst have warned me when thou sawest that I was about to get angry. I beg thee, my Father, not to forget to do so another time." The good man, who felt lonely at being the only one of his nation at Montreal wished to go down to three Rivers. It is probable that he will pay in good coin for the little consolation that he hopes to obtain from his people.

[77] A few days ago, a woman who had escaped from the country of the Hiroquois came to us, saying that a demon tormented her; and she asked us to place her for a time with the Ursulines, because she hoped to obtain her deliverance among those good souls. " I shall confess and receive communion; they will pray for me," she said, " and I shall be cured." Her look inspired fear, so wild were her eyes. The Mothers took charge of her with blessings. After a few days the poor creature came to tell us that she was quite free, and that God had cured her in the house of the virgins: I merely relate what happened. [page 233]

We have a sick man at St. Joseph who will be in Heaven, we hope, when this Chapter will be read in France. It must be admitted that God grants mercies wherever it seems good to him. This man, who was of a rough and violent character, has been guilty of some escapades since he has been born into the Church. He has told us that he never committed one without at once feeling the effects of God's justice: " Behold," he said, " the last time that I sinned, I gave scandal to the Christians; I returned to my former superstitions, more to satisfy [78] some persons than through any belief that I had in such follies. But at last God has cast me down; he has filled me with pains from my feet to the top of my head.’' He often says these words to God: " oh ! it is but right that I should suffer; I am not angry at it. Thou who hast made all, determine the period and the extent of my sufferings. I have but one thought: I have sinned; I wish to suffer. Make but one suffering of thine and mine; peiikoutour, peiikoutour,—make but one, make but one; and take the payment that I owe thee for my sins." When we took the Viaticum to him in his cabin, and gave him Extreme Unction, he spoke to his people, and said: " I have no more strength to speak, but I still have enough heart to weep for the scandal that I have given you. Retain no remembrance of my evil examples. I do not grieve for my sufferings, but I am very sorry for having offended God, and for having been wicked among men. I pardon those who have urged me to return to my old songs that I used for speaking [7g] to the demon. Pardon me also both for the many evil words that I have said, and the many evil actions that I have committed, and of which you have had knowledge. I am exhausted; speech fails me; pray to God for me. My heart tells me that I shall go to Heaven, for God is good. I will remember you, but drive the wicked away from amid your cabins, lest they should pervert you.'' I have no doubt that Heaven rejoices at the conversion of this man, and that Abraham's bosom is opened to this poor Lazarus, or this poor Job, covered with sores and full of pain. [page 237]

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MAKE no distinction between the Savages of saint Joseph and the Savages of three Rivers. Both have an affection for the spots that they have selected as dwelling-places; but their enemies pursue them so closely that, like frightened pigeons, they fly to the first and safest dovecote that they [80] find. Some families, seeing this breaking-up, stopped at three Rivers, with the intention of always living in the French fashion. The most notable among them said to one of our Fathers, on the departure of his countrymen: " I could flee as well as the others, and live as they do, by fishing and hunting; but my soul is dearer to me than my body. I see very well that I shall suffer, and that, as I have nothing but corn, I shall have to sow and harvest with much labor. I shall lead a very poor existence; but never mind,—while my body will fast, my soul will fatten by eating the bread of life, of which I would be deprived for a still longer time, were I to wander from your settlements." These good people were blessed in every way; the earth, the forests, and the waters have supplied them with food beyond their expectations, and Heaven has showered its wealth upon them. Last Spring, their Captain dictated two letters to an Interpreter, to be sent to Quebec to a Father of our Society, in which that good Neophyte [page 239] protested that he had nothing more at heart than to live according to the laws and the commands of his God.

[81] As they live in the midst of the French, it happened that a young man went to visit them during their meal, and they offered him a piece of beaver meat. He took it, and ate it without asking a blessing. A woman who observed this said to him: " If my grandson did not pray to God before eating, I would punish him." The Frenchman was quite ashamed, and tried to excuse himself; but in his heart he condemned himself.

On another occasion, a Father entered their cabins and saw a young woman weeping bitterly. He asked her what the reason was. " My nephew is dead," she said; " that is the cause of my tears." " What," replied the Father, " didst thou think that his body was immortal?" " It is not for his body that I grieve; it is his soul that causes my sorrow and regret, for he died without confession, and I fear that he may be in hell." " Give up that apprehension, and pray for him," said the Father; " for, as he had received Baptism, and feared to offend him who has made all, it is probable that he is not damned, but that he may [82] be in Purgatory. " " I have thought of that," she replied, " and I have already prayed for him; I have recited my rosary three times; I have invoked all the Saints in Heaven; I have implored the assistance of the little children who have died after their baptism; I have prayed to those of our nation who are in Paradise; still all that is but little. Tell me, my Father, what I can do, within my power, for the relief of that soul, and I will cheerfully do it. ' [page 241]

As a Huron who had come down to Kebec was about to go out hunting, he was wounded in the leg by a shot from an arquebus, the trigger of which was inadvertently pulled by a companion. He was at once carried to the hospital, where his wound was promptly dressed; but it was so severe that his leg had to be amputated. Now, as he was granted baptism because he was considered in danger of death, he exclaimed: " What a happy accident, that opens the gates of life to me! Had I not been wounded, the Hiroquois would perhaps have cast me into hell, while this blow takes me to Paradise." The Mothers sought to console him with the hope that he would recover [83] his health. " You are doing your best," he said, " but I feel that I am dead. I no longer fear the passage, for, as I am baptized, I am going to heaven, where I shall pray for you and for the person who has sent you to this country." Those good Daughters do not forget their good Mother. Not a sick person enters their house, not a person leaves it, without being charged to pray to God for her. That worthy Neophyte, who died on the 18th of January, will not forget in heaven the promise that he made on earth.

The Hospital has been greatly burdened this year, especially since the arrival of the ships. It must be confessed that these good Maidens are never happier than when they are performing the duties of their Institute, by deeds of charity that are truly heroic. Nevertheless, some sick persons had to be refused on the arrival of the Ships, for neither the room at their disposal, nor their strength, could suffice for all. But let us not wander from the Savages.

Here is praise which is all the truer that it comes [page 243] from the mouth of an enemy. Some one said to the [84] Hiroquois prisoners that, if we did not take any revenge for their treachery, it was not through want of courage, but through our desire to open their eyes to eternity; that, moreover, those who know God fear not death, because it gives entrance to a life much more agreeable than this one. " Thou art right," said one of the Hiroquois. " we have seen it with our own eyes in the person of Ondesson,"—thus they called Father Isaac Jogues,—" and even in several Algonquins whom we burned; they scorned torture and death. And, within the year, we have admired the courage and resolution of one Apmangouch; " this was a brave Christian who was named Bernard at his baptism. " I was present," said the Hiroquois, " at the fight in which he was killed. One of my comrades, who recognized him, told him that we would give him his life if he would surrender, as he belonged to a nation that is allied to the Agneronons Hiroquois; and we would have kept our word. But he replied in a loud voice and in a [85] bold tone: 'I cannot yield to treacherous foes and to cowards who rely solely on their numbers and their surprises. I do not wish to live. If any one among you has any spirit, let him come forward and give proof of his courage against me.’ One of our warriors, whom we considered a very Demon, started at once and tried to strike him with his javelin; but Bernard avoided the blow, ran him through in a moment, and, as he fell, split his head with his war- hatchet. Our people were enraged," said the Hiroquois; " they discharged a gun into his thigh and pierced his side with an arrow. Finding himself wounded, he called out in the Hiroquois tongue: 'A [page 245] truce, I pray you, for an instant. Give me a little leisure; let me speak to him who has made all. I am going with him to Heaven. As to you who know him not, you shall be cast into flames in the bottom of the pit.' At these words all stopped; he knelt down, and raised his hands and his eyes to Heaven, speaking aloud,—but in the Algonquin tongue, which we did not understand. [86] we all were astonished. Finally, when he had finished his prayer which lasted for some time, he looked at us with a steady gaze and said: ' Do what you will; I feel no regret at suffering a death that gives me life.' They pierced him on the spot with some lance-thrusts." Truly that was a holy and generous courage.

A Father of our Society met a very infirm Savage woman, who was coming to Mass in the midst of the snow. He told her that she would not be obliged, even on a Festival day, to go out of her cabin in such rough weather and in her great infirmity. " Alas ! " she replied, " is it not right that, so long as I have a little strength to drag myself to the house of prayer, I should come to honor God? So little life is left to me that I cannot employ it better than in serving so good a Master." " Yes, " said the Father, " but thou aggravatest thy disease to such an extent that thou mightest die of it." " Formerly," she replied, " I greatly feared death; but, since I have had a knowledge of a much happier life than [87] that which we lead on earth, and since my soul has been washed in the waters of baptism, I have lost that apprehension, for it seems to me that, if I dreaded death, I would fear to enter into the joys of the other world. I have this belief and this expectation that, if I obey God and ask him to pardon [page 247] my sins, I shall see him in Heaven." God has showered many blessings on that family,—not only is the woman in good health, but she is respected by the French and by the Savages for her great modesty and her charity; while her husband is looked upon as an example to the believers, so steadfast is he in the Faith.

I am not surprised that they who do not understand the Savages, and who cannot penetrate into their thoughts, should have no respect for them; for in truth they have no attractions that are pleasing to nature. They are free and independent to the last degree; they have neither politeness, nor conversation, nor civility with the French; the oils with which they grease themselves offend the nostrils, and the poverty of their clothes and of their cabins offends the sight. Only the pure grace [88] that God gives them makes them lovable; now this grace is generally known only to those who see into their souls, and even those who understand them find it difficult sometimes to endure them, so different are their ways from ours. But when such persons listen to their Confessions, and to the outpouring of their hearts, they feel a cordial tenderness and affection for them, when they see that the Spirit of God acts as a Father, as a Master, as a Friend, as a Spouse, in souls that breathed but barbarism. The haste that the departure of the Ships causes us does not permit me to review the Chapter in which I have spoken of the sickness of a second Job as regards patience; so I must set down here some sentiments with which God blessed his death. This man, who for some years had not been liked by his countrymen, found himself abandoned by all. In the midst [page 249] of his afflictions we were almost the only persons who visited him. Therefore he told us that we were his sole consolation on earth. After having for a long time suffered a severe Purgatory, [89] and after having endured as a penitent, he fell into I know not what loving anguish, and seemed to have no longer any sorrow but that caused by the absence of his God. " When shall I see thee? " he frequently said to him; "Kikwiroumir,—I am anxious for thee; thine absence afflicts me. Ah, would that I might belong to thee! I am not angry at my sufferings, but I cannot bear thine absence. I love thee, and I see thee not. Speak to me a littler O my God! and say these words: 'Let him come; let him see me;' and I shall be satisfied, for I shall be with thee." For my part, I believe that, if an Atheist or a libertine had known that man in health, in his illness, and in his death, he would have been compelled to admit that there is but one God who can transform a heart so gently and so firmly, and who can mingle he joys of Heaven with the bitterness of earth. After all, there can be but Heaven, and a man or two on earths who have had any knowledge of these workings; the rest of the world—whether Greek, or wrench, or Barbarian—have not seen what passed in the secret recesses of that soul.

[90] How many times have we seen persons weeping bitterly who have approached us with such words .s these: " My heart is sad, and I cannot sleep in peace, because my daughter wishes to marry a person who is not yet baptized." " I feel as much pain when I see my people keep aloof from baptism, as if I abandoned my country and my own life." " Formerly I imagined that death was the greatest of all [page 251] ills, and now I would find it agreeable." " I have but one sorrow in the world and that is that I cannot remember these prayers and know not what to say to God. It seems to me that my heart speaks to him, but my mouth cannot pronounce what it says. " Such fruits are not of the growth of nature; they are found and gathered only in the garden of grace.

This new world is of the same nature as the old; it has its good and its bad aspects, as well as Europe. The latter predominate in Americas as well as in other parts of the World. I know not where war, disease, and other plagues had their [91] origin; but I do know that they afflict these Savages, as well as the French. Since the Faith has come to dwell among these peoples, all things that make men die have been found in these countries. Although they have not been defeated in their wars this year, still they have not enjoyed peace. Sicknesses have divided their days with health; but in these vicissitudes God has always shown himself their Father. The smallpox that caused such havoc nine years ago did good to some souls, while afflicting their bodies. Formerly, one heard nothing but drums, cries, and yells; one saw nothing but feasts and sweats in the cabins where the sick lay. But now one hardly knows, in the places where the Christians reside, what has become of all those songs and noises. Our sick have recourse to God, but with such confidence that that contagion—which, as a rule, is fatal to aged persons—has not carried off one; and they attribute this good fortune to him who holds both life and death in his hands.

[92] I cannot conclude this Chapter without mentioning a little girl who remained for two years at [page 253] the seminary of the Ursuline Mothers. The father of the child heard that she was doing wonders, for her age; and he set out to go and see her. After he had journeyed over a hundred leagues, he was met and killed by the Hiroquois. When the child received the news, she paid the tribute required by nature on such occasions; but when she was told that her father had been baptized since she had seen him, and that he was in Heaven, the news appeared, in a moment, under so different an aspect, that she felt nothing but joy for his salvation. Her relatives, who had escaped from the fight, took her with them; and since that time some savage women have come to see the Ursuline Mothers, and have told them that that child had instructed them, and had taught them to recite the Rosary. God knows with what delight those good maidens tasted the fruits of the young plant that had been cultivated by their hands.

Yesterday, while speaking to a woman who has been ill for a long time at St. Joseph, with [93] a disease that she considered mortal, I asked her whether her pains and her poverty had not caused her much sorrow, and whether the fear of death had not often troubled her soul. she gave no answer as regards poverty, because we had given her some slight assistance; but she said these words to me, in a tone which showed that her lips were in accord with her heart: " I assure thee, my Father, that throughout my illness I have felt no sorrow in my soul; it seemed to me that I was glad to suffer. As for death, so far was I from having any dread of it that, on the contrary, it seemed agreeable to me. I said in my heart: ' I am near the house of prayer, I am near the Fathers who care for my soul; and, if I [page 255] die in the woods, I shall be deprived of their assistance.' That thought inspired me with a desire to die, but our Lord would not permit it." she said this in the Church, where she came to confess and receive communion, to present herself before him whom she truly loves, in order that he might dispose of her entirely according to his most holy will. [942 This little Church built at the residence of saint Joseph gives much consolation to the good Neophytes, and with reason; for they have their Lord with them. The building is very neat; although the windows, if one may call them thus, are only of linen, and it has as yet neither Sacristy nor steeple, it does not fail to please the eye, and to inspire devotion in all who see it. May God bless the persons who have contributed toward its erection, and who have a share in its modest ornaments. Our good Christians will not forget them before God. [page 257]

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THIS is the third Winter that Father Gabriel Druillettes has passed with the Savages,—doing work that, in truth, might prostrate the body of a Giant; but very well adapted and most advantageous for uplifting a mind that [95] has an affection for the Cross. The Agneronon Hiroquois, who have but little love for the French, who hate the Hurons, and who are enraged against the Algonquins, compel the latter to wander far away from our settlements in order to carry on their great hunts. But, as most of those who dwell near us are Christians, they generally ask, when they depart, that one of our Fathers who understands their language may accompany them, that they may not, during their long and fatiguing journeys, be deprived of the principal exercises of the (Christian Religion which they have recently embraced. Father Gabriel having been given to them, eight shallops and several canoes, all filled with Savages, bore him away from us on the 22nd of September of last year, 1647, to take him eighty or a hundred leagues from Kebec, into the land of Shades, so to speak,—that is to say, amid frightful mountains and forests, where the Sun never looks upon the earth, except by stealth.

This small Army, which had scattered here and there on the great river, [96] rallied soon afterward [page 259] in the vicinity of Tadoussac, near a small river called Kwabahiganan by the Savages. When the Father saw his flock again gathered together, he distributed to them the bread of the word and doctrine of our Lord, so that his sheep were inspired with fervor. Some who, because they had wandered too far from the Fold, had lost taste and relish for holy things, felt their appetite return when they saw the avidity of those who could not be satisfied, so great was the pleasure that they took in discourses relating to eternal life.

A Pagan woman who had escaped a short time before from the country and the captivity of the Hiroquois, threw herself at his feet, begging him to baptize her before going any further on so rough a journey. The Father who well knew that she had been instructed, and that her pride had prevented her from embracing a creed which makes a profession of humility, asked her whence this sudden change arose. " Affliction," she said, " has given me sense. As soon as I saw myself in the hands of our enemies, I thought in [97] my heart: ' He who has made all punishes me because I closed my ears to his word; ' and in the worst of my tortures I said to him: ' Have pity on me; I had no sense in offending thee; permit me again to see the land of the Believers, so that I may be baptized.'" Our Lord having granted her prayer, the Father granted her, upon the spot, the fulfillment of her desire.

On the 8th of October, they all prayed and asked God for favorable weather to enable them to cross the great river, which at that spot is from eight to ten leagues wide. That favor was granted them; they separated once more, to meet again, at a certain [page 261] time, at the rendezvous that they had appointed. There the Father met some Savages who had started at the beginning of September; he administered to them the Sacraments of Penance and the Eucharist, with mutual joy and satisfaction on both sides. The mothers brought their little children,—some, to be baptized; others, who were already baptized, that he might see them in their [98] sicknesses. Now, although some appeared to be dying,—among others, one who was afflicted with dropsy, and for whom death only was expected,—nevertheless, when the Father had given them holy water, and had recited some of the prayers of the Church over them, our Lord cured them all, to the astonishment of those good Neophytes.

After a short stay in that spot they proceeded toward a river called by the Savages Kaparipataouangak—that is to say, land that is pierced; because the mouth through which it falls into the great river seems to be only a small opening in the land, and yet the river is very wide and very fine beyond that narrow passage.{l9} It was in the vicinity of this River that that small army went inland, some in one direction, and some in another,—to w age war on the Beavers, Elks, and Bears, the denizens of those great forests.

The Party that carried the Father with it—consisting of fifty mouths, besides the smaller children—left two Shallops on the banks of this River, which we believe to be that called by our French the River of [99] Mantane; and, following the shore of the great river, they walked for four days along a road more firmly paved than that from Paris to Orleans, but not so flat or so even. There were rocks laid by [page 263] the hands of Nature, which takes pleasure in variety; some were sharp, others blunt; some round, and some square; some high, and some low. In a word, it was a road of iron; and, after all, they had to carry on their backs the houses in which they were to lodge, and the food that they wished to eat; as for beds, they are found everywhere. He who has built the earth, the rocks, and the woods, has also made the mattresses and bolsters which one must use in following the Savages.

Finally, on the 7th of November, the little band halted to take a short rest before entering the great forests, where their labors would be doubled. Those who carried the cooking utensils, consisting of some kettles, stopped; the sutlers, who had nothing left but a few peas and a little Indian corn, in the bottom of their pouches, produced these; the [100] women cooked the food without butter, without meat, without fat, without oil, without salt, and without vinegar. Appetite supplies the place of all sauces; it surpasses all the condiments and appetizers of the best tables in France. They dined without bread and without wine; as for supper, such a thing had not been mentioned for a long time. In the middle of this feast a Captain called out: " Take courage, this is the last time we shall use our kettles. There are no Porcupines; Beavers are scarce, and the snow is not deep enough for capturing Elk. We must be prepared for hunger; be brave and stout of heart, and persevere in your labors." After this harangue, all the Christians, who foresaw the trouble and fatigues in which they were to be involved, not only accepted them cheerfully but they also offered them to our Lord that he might be pleased to stay the fury [page 265] of the Hiroquois, who banish them from the neighborhood of his house—that is to say, of the Church that has been erected for them. They repeated the same prayer on the anniversaries of the birth and the death of our Savior.

[101] About that time, two Hurons and an Algonquin, who feared that they would die of hunger, left the band and proceeded toward Kebec; but all three did not arrive there safely. The Algonquin died on the road; while the two others, who reached us on the 26th of November, told us that hunger and sickness were killing those poor people. They were asked whether the Father had not written, and they replied that they had not seen him before their departure In fact, they had taken advantage of his absence to rob him of a few prunes and raisins with which he relieved the sick.

All who come to New France are sufficiently familiar with the Mountains of nostre-Dame,{20} because, when the Pilots and Sailors reach that part of the great river which is opposite those mountains, they generally amuse themselves by baptizing the new passengers, unless, by means of a present, they turn aside the flood of that baptism, which is made to pour in abundance over their heads. It was amid those high precipices that the Father and all his band [102] marched, climbed, and rolled over, seeking in the land of death the means of sustaining their lives.

Every one was frightened; the poor Father had recourse to God; he made the Christians pray and exhorted them to confide in the goodness of him who, because he gives himself as food to his children, will not refuse them life and the preservation of their bodies. In fact, they found every day not enough [page 267] to live on, but enough to keep them from dying; one would bring in a grouse, another a hare or a Porcupine. In a word, there was not a day that God did not give them some little thing. Now, as winter was approaching, they were in great trouble; for they knew not how they could walk on the snow, because they had none of the skins with which they make snowshoes that they use for that purpose. It happened fortunately that Noel Negabamat, after hearing holy mass on the feast of Saint Francis Xavier, felt impelled to make a trial of his former agility and strength. He selected his own hunting ground as also did the young men. God made him encounter a great Moose, which he pursued, caught, [103] and killed. After thanking our Lord for the favor, he gave the flesh to the most needy, and the skin to the women, to make snowshoes with; this wonderfully rejoiced all the hunters.

As the festival of the new-born Child approached, they built a little Church, in which all confessed and received communion at midnight mass, with joy and consolation in their souls. These feelings were soon followed by cheerfulness of heart, for so much snow fell, that they had enough for killing the large animals. But, as there were but few of these, they were compelled to divide into two bands. Georges Etouet, the Captain of Tadoussac, gave the district most abounding in game to Noel Negabamat through purely Christian charity, and in accordance with a custom that savors naught of barbarism, though in the very midst of Barbarians; it is this, that the Captains of a country always give the advantage to the Captains of other nations who come to hunt in their district.

That Captain begged the Father to accompany him [104] in his sufferings. " I know well, my Father, " he said to him, " that thou wilt have to suffer with me; for there are hardly any animals in the place where we are going; all the good spots are full of hunters; there remains in this quarter only that valley, where we shall perhaps find death, but no one fears it in thy company." The Father would not draw back, in that emergency. He followed him, and, without foreseeing the future, he prepared him by his conversations for a holy death which came to him in the middle of the Summer at the Hospital of Kebec, whither he caused himself to be carried two or three days before his decease.

But, not to wander from my road, when that Captain's Hunters found enough wherewith to live fairly well, four cabins from another quarter came, and threw themselves into their arms, crying that they were starving,—because, they said, there were neither Elks nor Beavers in their own district. Georges Etouet gave them a tobacco feast,—that is, he gave them something to smoke as he had not sufficient food for so many people. It is incredible how charitable the Savages are on [105] such occasions. These good people were not reproved because they ran over other people's marches; they were made to share whatever was in the cabins. This good Captain said to them: " Courage, my brothers! let us run the same risks; let us all suffer and die in company. Our consolation is that we have a Father with us. His charity compels him to suffer, and exposes him to death, as well as ourselves."

The Father encouraged them by relating several miracles that the Son of God had performed,—such [page 271] as the multiplication of the loaves. " You are baptized in his Name," he said; " you are his children. He is Almighty; confide in him, and he will extricate us all from this danger." The good Neophytes, animated by the words of their Father, took courage; they worked every day from morning till night, hunting in all directions. God assisted them beyond their expectations; they always had sufficient to keep up their strength, to the surprise of those who hunted in places where game was more abundant. Some Pagans, who confided in their Manitou, were four days [106] without eating, and barely found enough to drag on their poor and miserable existence. They all admitted, in the Spring, that the Father's band had suffered less than the others, though it had proceeded into the most barren regions of all those countries.

Finally, after having wandered through those dreadful mountains, they descended toward the source of the River of Mantane, which I mentioned at the beginning of this Chapter. They walked on the ice of that river until the 3rd of March, when they reached its mouth, where they had left their Shallops. They waited for one another until the 14th of April, on which day they proceeded to Tadoussac, where they anchored on the last day of the same month, and then started from it on the 7th of May. As their Church situated in the cove of Saint Joseph is dedicated to the glorious Archangel Saint Michael,{2l} they had asked our Lord that they might be there on the day of his feast. This seemed well-nigh impossible, for it was necessary to go forty leagues in a day and a half,—a thing that sometimes requires a [107] month to accomplish. But [page 273] the wind favored them to such an extent that their wishes were granted. When they arrived before Kebec the Father who had accompanied them took a Crucifix in his hand, and, lifting his voice, he made them return thanks to God, in full view of our French,—who, when they saw the poor Father with naked feet, and his body covered with a blanket in the fashion of the Savages, and heard the prayers of the good Neophytes, were so deeply moved that some of them wept freely. May God be praised forever. If there be great trouble in following these poor people, there is likewise no slight consolation. Who has ever given anything through love, without having been rewarded a hundredfold by him who does us too much honor in being pleased at our little labors ?

When the good Father had rested a little, he comforted us by his discourses. " The Savages with whom I wintered," he said, " are no longer children in the Faith. I found in them firmness and entire confidence amid dangers. They have a much greater devotion for the holy [108] Sacrifice of the Mass than in previous years; they have showed themselves much more gentle and courteous toward me than they have ever been; and it must be admitted that God has been a Father to them in a most special and loving manner."

A Savage who suffered from an abscess, which brought him to death's door, had recourse to God by means of this prayer,—short, indeed but most heart-felt. Thou who hast suffered so much for us, thou canst do all. I do not tell thee to cure me. It is for thee to decide. If thou do this, I will thank thee in the communion; if thou do not, I will not cease to [page 275] believe in thee on that account. And thou, Mary, Mother of Jesus, if thou say to thy Son, ' Cure him,' I will erect a Cross in his honor on the summit of these high mountains." He was cured in the octave of her immaculate Conception.

His little daughter was very sick and her mother promised saint Theresa, whose name she bore, to receive communion on the day of her feast, which was approaching. At the very moment that the mother received communion, the girl was suddenly cured.

[109] The daughter of Noel Negabamat, named Marie Magdelaine, was attacked by a disease that resembled a possession more than a sickness; her fits inspired the Savages with terror. Her father and mother offered her up to our Lord. "Thou hadst given me many children," said this good Neophyte; " and thou hast taken them away. If it be thy will to take this one, she is thine. She is said to be dead, but thou canst bring her back to life; do whatever may be thy will." When the father saw the child, who was about eight years old, suffering great pain, he exhorted the parents to hear Holy Mass nine times, and to receive communion once during that novenas for the relief of their daughter. God was pleased to relieve the poor child of her great sufferings; and some time after their return near their own house of prayer, she was cured of all her diseases, which seemed rooted in the very marrow of her bones.

A woman was in labor for two days, an extraordinary thing among the Savage women, who are frequently delivered without assistance,—as [110] happened, moreover, this year, in the case of a [page 277] catechumen who arrived the first of all at St. Joseph she delivered herself of her child and dressed and wrapped it up, all alone, carrying it herself into her cabin. She whom I mention suffered to such an extent that every one thought she would die, and she gave her feast of adieu. But the Father called the Savages together, to offer to God the sacrifice of his son, that he might have pity on the poor creature; and, before the day was over, the Child was born, and the mother free from pain and sickness.

The Father had taken with him some ointment for burns, which the good people used for frost-bites; and they were cured so promptly that they were astonished. When the aged women found themselves in so dreadful a country, they did not believe that they would ever be able to climb to the summit of the mountains that had to be crossed; but they recommended themselves to their good Angels, and asserted that their souls were thereby filled with joy, while their bodies felt marked relief.

A pleasing incident occurred on the summit of one of those great mountains. A [111] woman who was bent with age, had dragged herself thus far. The Hunters wishing to divert themselves, invited her to a feast and said to her: " Our Mother, we are astonished that thou hast been able to overcome so many difficulties. "Nipimousehik Nit' Angelin, she replied; " It is my good Angel who has enabled me to walk; who has preserved me amid cold, fatigue, and famine." " That is true," they said, " that is why thou must change names with this great mountain. You are both of the same age. In future thou shalt be called Ouabask "—that is the name of the mountain—" and all who will hear of thee shall be [page 279] astonished that at thy age thou couldst come from Kebec as far as the mountains of nostre Dame."

It would take too long, were I to relate all the other things that occurred on this journey. I shall conclude this Chapter with these few words: that it was certainly necessary that Jesus Christ should have suffered to save these souls, for, had he redeemed them by means of pleasures, who would ever have come to seek them in the very [112] depths of barbarism, in the land of snow, of ice, of famine, and even of death?[page 281]

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T seems as if innocence, banished from the majority of the Empires and Kingdoms of the World, had withdrawn into these great forests where these people dwell. Their nature has something, I know not what, of the goodness of the Terrestrial Paradise before sin had entered it. Their practices manifest none of the luxury, the ambition, the avarice, or the pleasures that corrupt our cities. Since Baptism has made them disciples of the Holy Ghost) that Doctor is pleased to be with them; he teaches them, far from the noise of tribunals and of Louvres; he has made them more learned, without books, than any Aristotle ever was with his ponderous volumes.

This year, they came down in [113] three bands, the last consisting of forty Canoes. At three Rivers they met about four hundred Savages, who received them with a neat salute of many arquebus shots. These good Neophytes returned this greeting very skillfully, and then they all entered the Chapel. That was their first visit; and there, for a good quarter of an hour, they returned thanks to God for having brought them to his house. Meanwhile, they had left their canoes and all their little effects on the bank of the great river,—behaving as they do ill their great forests where no thief has ever been recognized, taken, or hanged. They found themselves surrounded by a great number of Hurons; and [page 283] nevertheless—although those people never, as a rule, leave behind them anything that they can carry away—these good Neophytes did not then observe that anything had been stolen from them.

After saluting our Lord, they came to see the Father who has for a long time been in the habit of instructing them. Each one brought his little present: one, a [114] small wooden dish; another, a little bark vessel; a third, a piece of smoked flesh. A mercer would be neither rich nor overloaded with all their petty wares, which are bestowed upon other Savages, because none of those things are used by the French.

A pleasing incident occurred in connection with these little offerings. A woman observed that some of the French wore tassels on their hats, and she spoke to the Father, saying: " My Father, here are many Frenchmen who have not as much sense as thou, for their heads are loaded with ornaments. I cannot bear that thou shouldst not have some, as well as the others; here is one, according to our fashion, that my daughter presents thee." Thereupon she took the Father's hat without further ceremony, to fasten on it a strip of their work made with porcupine quills dyed a very bright scarlet. The Father smilingly tried to recover his hat, but she persisted. Fortunately, this Savage trimming was too short to go around his hat; she did her best to stretch it, but the Father thanked her, and explained to her [115] that it was not through disdain of her present, but through propriety on his part that he could not use it.

When these offerings had been given, the Father, in order to regale and welcome them, gave them some Indian corn wherewith to have a feast in their [page 285] fashion. He who received it said to the others: " Let us thank God for having produced this corn, and for having made the Father willing to give us some." Thereupon they said a short prayer, which they pronounced aloud in a voice and with an accent full of modesty and devotion.

While some were preparing the feast, the others erected their houses or cabins; and in three or four hours they were all lodged, and the banquet was all prepared and finished.

When this was done, each one came to give an account of his conscience. I know not whether in Monasteries of the strictest discipline there are many persons more sincere and more candid than those good people, who have dealings only with God, and with the animals of their great forests. The innocence that one reads upon [116] their countenances and observes in their actions, causes joy or confusion to those who have a knowledge of it.

The Father, in conversing with them, observed three things which afford a striking proof of their devotion and of the vigor of their faith. Not one of them, in the course of eight or nine months, had lost his rosary, although they had wandered in various places as fishermen and hunters who are in perpetual motion; and although, moreover,—since they have no attachment for anything here below,—they generally forget some article of their baggage wherever they encamp. I can say, further, that the mothers requested rosaries for their little children, and hung them around their necks like a Relic, making them kiss them and reciting the prayer from time to time for those little innocents, so that they might not be deprived of the blessing attached to it. [page 287]

In the second place, they have never forgotten the festival days that were marked out for them on their little calendars; they met together in the morning, at noon, and at night, for a short time to offer to God their devotions [117] and their prayers, and to intone their Hymns, with a common accord and with one heart.

In the third place, in whatever spot or in whatever company they may have been, they have publicly professed their belief in Jesus Christ; so that the Hurons who have gone to trade in their country have come back so edified and astonished that our Fathers who are in their Villages have given us testimony thereof that is full of consolation. That is not all, they preach the faith so strenuously among the wandering tribes that dwell in the North that those people are attracted by the odor of Christian virtues, and follow them,—coming to us to drink, at the source, what they have tasted in the streams. This year we have baptized some as Saint Philip baptized the Eunuch of Queen Candace,—after a single conversation,—so solid was the instruction that they had received, and so holy their preparation by those new preachers of the Gospel. And what seems quite astonishing is, that the [1 18] women are in no respect behind the men in the performance of that duty. As they are naturally affectionate and more pressing, they have less of worldly respect in connection with these strange things, which are so holy and so useful to these people, who have remained for so many centuries in the shadows of death.

Some of their disciples have given such satisfaction to our Fathers, and have asked with such grace and persistence for baptism, that they have won it [page 289] with a joyfulness in their hearts that can be felt but not expressed, and so greatly to the edification of some of our French, that they were delighted. One of our Fathers, who had never yet seen that spectacle, exclaimed: " I would never have believed in France what I see with my own eyes in Canada. Even if all the labors of our Fathers had produced but this fruit of one year, I would consider that they were rewarded a hundredfold."

A Frenchman who lodged a family of those good Savages in his house said, some time afterward, to one of our Fathers that he would not for half [119] of what he owned, have refrained from giving lodgings to those guests. " When I was told that they prayed to God night and morning, that they asked a blessing before their meals, and that they performed other devotional exercises, I listened to it all as to idle tales. But, when I had kept them in my house for some days, my eyes witnessed what my ears could not believe. I confess that I was edified, confused, and astonished. Their evening prayers occupied more than a quarter of an hour, and were said with delightful quiet and modesty. The mothers made the sign of the Cross on their little children, when they awakened them and when they put them to bed. " In a word, I say with surprise that the Spirit of God instructs them in the woods beyond anything that I could have thought. But let us consider some of their actions in detail.

A Christian, thirty years of age, who had lost his wife and found himself burdened with three children, took a Christian woman as his second wife, in the woods, without notifying the elders, who were not far distant from the quarter where he was. On the [page 291] following Sunday, [120] he went to the cabin that served as a chapel; there he knelt before a Crucifix that stood in the middle of that Church built of bark. The chief man among the Christians spoke in the name of the whole assembly, and told him that he had committed a grievous fault in marrying without giving notice in the Church; that he had greatly scandalized all the believers and, therefore, was unworthy to remain in their company; that he could pray to God in private but that his sin could be expiated only by a good confession, which he should make when they returned to three Rivers. The poor man withdrew without saying a word, and, when he came down to the French settlements some months afterward, he presented himself to receive whatever penance the Father would be pleased to impose on him. He wished to flog himself before all the members of his tribe, but he was permitted only to beg their pardon. When his Countrymen saw him in that humiliation, they said to him: " Now thou hast given satisfaction to God and to his Church, and thou mayst pray with us." Would to our [ Lord that this fire may never die out and that that which is to burn the world may still find it in all its vigor.

In the preceding Summer, we had baptized a young woman who, on returning to her own country, fell very ill. When she saw that she was losing her strength, she was seized with great anguish because she believed that she would die without confession. " I have never yet Confessed she said. " If God had taken me immediately after my baptism, I would have been consoled; but I cannot make up my mind to die without being purified in the Sacrament of [page 293] penance. Will not God grant me the grace of seeing his house once more, and of confessing myself therein A friend of hers told her to confess to our Lord. " I have already done so," she replied, " but I shall not be content until I leave my sins with those whom God has established in his Church, to absolve us in his name." she and her husband united their voices and their prayers to obtain that grace. Our Lord is truly all-powerful; but humility, confidence, and love can [122] do everything with his goodness. This woman was so carefully dragged along that at last she came to three Rivers; and, when she entered our chapel, you would have said that she was beginning to breathe again. " Now," she exclaimed, " I am content. O thou who art good, I thank thee for having preserved me up to this moment. I no longer ask thee for life. Let me confess myself and then let thy will be done." The Father who heard her states that he found in that soul hardly anything that needed absolution,—not that she did not understand herself, and that she did not explain herself very clearly, but on account of the innocence of her life. While speaking afterward with her in familiar conversation, when he saw her so pure and so candid, he took pleasure in putting some questions to her. " Fearest thou not death?" he said to her. " I feared it before my confession, but now I love it." " If the Hiroquois were to take thee while going back to thy own country, what wouldst thou say? " " I would speak to God amid my tortures and I would say to him: ' My sufferings will soon pass away, and my glory will be eternal; strengthen me, thou who hast made thyself my relative, and who hast [123] been pleased to die for me.' " " Art thou not sorry [page 295] at being sick?" " How can I be sorry when God wills it so" I have often said: ' Here I am, do whatever may be thy will. I have no sense; it is thou who knowest what should be done.' " " Thinkest thou not that the belief and prayer that thou hast embraced have caused thy illness?" That temptation is quite common among the Savages, for you may say that to receive the Faith and to be persecuted are the same thing. " Alas! " she replied, " I never think that prayer has brought this affliction and this sickness on me, for it is my relief and my strength. I feel every day that my heart is joyful when it prays, or when it thinks of God." I greatly fear that several of these Northern countries will come and sit at the table of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, while the children of the Kingdom will be banished from it.

A little child fell ill during the winter, and one of the Jugglers or Sorcerers of the country presented himself to cure it with his cries and yells. The father of the child held down his head, [124] without saying a word. When the mother saw that the Charlatan was asking I know not what reward for doctoring her child in his fashion, she said to him: " Were it in thy power to enchant her against my will, I would give thee what thou askest, not to do it; and, even if I knew that thine art could restore her health, I would rather see her expire before my eyes, than see her recover through thy remedies." All the Christians highly praised her faith and constancy, while she, pursuing her point, said to them: " Now, then, let us have recourse to God; let us all kneel around the child; let us offer our prayers and our desires to God; let us all recite our rosaries and [page 297] leave the master of life to do as he wills. If he cure her, we will thank him for it; if not, we shall at least have this consolation, that her soul will not have been soiled by invocations to the devil, and that she will be forever acceptable to God in Heaven." Our Lord was pleased to grant to the faith of the parents the life and health of their child. That woman does more good among these poor [125] people than ten great Doctors would.

She brought to the Father seven or eight women with their children, and presented them all for Baptism. The Father questioned them and found them well instructed; nevertheless, he granted that favor only to the children, and to three of these Catechumens whom he had instructed to a slight extent four years ago. He was greatly astonished when he heard them repeat what he had taught them, and the means that they had taken to preserve in their hearts love and desire for prayer, and affection for holy Baptism. Wishing to try the most fervent one, and her who seemed of the highest birth, he said to her that the Sacrament that she asked for was granted only to those who displayed great courage. " I am but a woman," she replied, " but if it were necessary to pass through the Hiroquois to obtain Baptism it seems to me that I would pass boldly. You see that I am going back to the woods and that perhaps I shall die this winter. Will you wait until I am dead to baptize me? What regret you would feel [126] at having refused me that Sacrament, if you were told that I had passed away from this life without having received it ! "

"But again," the Father said to her, "what reward dost thou expect from us, when thou shalt be with [page 299] us in the same Church?" "Thou knowest well," she replied, "that neither my husband nor I have ever asked you for anything except to be made children of God. That is our sole request. Truly, myFather, if Baptism were sold, I would buy it, no matter what it might cost me; and I am sure that my husband has the same feeling." " That is enough," said the Father, " you shall both be baptized. " God knows what joy took possession of the heart of that good shunamite. But let us proceed. A Captain of that tribe had desired Baptism for two years. The Father asked him what he was doing to prepare himself for it. " I keep away from my heart and from my mouth everything that seems to me to be evil; and, if anything appears to me to be agreeable to God, that is what I love. I know all the prayers that thou hast taught, I recite them very frequently; and [127] not a festival day passes that I do not say my rosary three times." "Yes, but dost thou firmly believe all the things that are taught thee?" "Thou must know, my Father, that before I had heard any one speak of the doctrine that you teach, I had sometimes passed eight years without coming to see the French; fear of the Agneronons barred the way to me. But when I learned the importance of these truths, from my people who came to see you, I passed through all those dangers. I came to listen to you, and from the moment that I learned from thy lips that there was another life, of joy or of pain, and that it was necessary that our souls be cleansed in the waters of Baptism, I have so earnestly desired those waters that I will never leave thee any rest until thou hast granted them to me. When my Countrymen saw me leave my country, they bade me a final [page 301] adieu, thinking that I was going to throw myself into the hands of the Hiroquois; but I replied that the demons were worse than the Hiroquois and that it was better to be a captive with the latter than to be a slave of the wretched Manitou. [128] Is not that true?" he said to the Father.

"Most true; but after all, what thinkest thou of the Mysteries of our creed?" "This is what I think. The earth has neither price nor value, the Sky is not beautiful, the Sun is neither bright nor admirable; what thou teachest us about the life that never dies is precious, is fine, is admirable. That is what I think." Such is their manner of expressing themselves.

" But again," continued the Father, " what leads thee to believe these truths? Perhaps thou confident in my words?" " Why sayest thou that? Art thou not a man like the others? Hast thou not told us that thou wert but an interpreter; that thy lips conveyed the words of him who has made all? It is in him that I believe, and not in men; for his love I will come down from time to time, in spite of all the perils of waters, of men, and of demons.' These tests were more than sufficient to obtain Baptism for him, with consolation from all sides. Now it happened that the Hurons who [129] were at three Rivers stole one of his Canoes. This must have been a great loss to him, for he could not convey his baggage back to his own country. He complained to the Father, who wished to see about the matter. " My Father, let us not make any noise about it," the good Neophyte said to him. " I wished to give thee notice of my loss, so that thou mightest say in public that theft is a wicked act, and that such things should [page 303] never occur in places where prayer reigns. The Father, who felt compassion for him, told him that he might recognize his Canoe at the embarkation of the Hurons, who were to start in a few days. " Even if I discovered the thief, I would not have the heart to offer him so public an affront; and, if I did so, we would have to come to blows, for I should try to take away by force what he would never give up willingly. Quarrels are bad things. Let us say no more about it, my Father." In fact, from that time, no complaint ever issued from his lips.

I shall close this chapter with an instance of wonderfully naive simplicity. After the fathers and mothers have confessed, [130] they make such of their children as are fit to receive that Sacrament go to confession. But, as regards those who have not sufficient discernment, their mothers bring them to the Confessors, and relate in their presence their petty acts of naughtiness, and make them ask for a penance, which they themselves perform for their little ones. To my mind, this innocent proceeding is agreeable to men, to the Angels, and to God himself. [page 305]

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For particulars of this document, see Vol. XXX.


This is a Latin letter written by Jean de Brébeuf to the father general (Caraffa), dated at Ste. Marie of the Hurons, June 2, 1648. The original MS. Rests in the archives of the Society, where, presumably in 1858, Father Martin made a copy of it. six years later, Martin translated it into French, and in that form it was published in Carayon's Première Mission, pp. 229-232. We follow Martin's Latin apograph, now in the archives of St. Mary's College, Montreal, and our English translation is made therefrom.


For a bibliographical account of the Journal des Jésuites, see Vol. XXVII.


In reprinting the Relation of 1647 - 48 (Paris, 1649), we follow a copy of the original Cramoisy edition in the Lenox Library—known there as the Lamoignon copy. The volume is a composite, consisting of two parts. Part I. is the usual general report from Jerome Lalemant, as superior, to Estienne Charlet, the provincial of the Society in France. Lalemant dates his prefatory epistle, " De Quebec [page 307] ce 15. d'Octobre 1648." Part II., also addressed to the provincial, is the customary Huron report, by Paul Ragueneau, who dates his introductory letter, "Des Hurons ce 16. Auril 1648." The royal authority was granted " en Decembre 1648;" and the ecclesiastical permission was " Fait à Paris ce 30. Decembre 1648." This annual is generally referred to as " H. 89," because described in Harrisse's Notes, no. 89.

Collation. Title, with verso blank, I leaf; "Table des Chapitres," pp. (4); "Priuilege," with "Permiffion" on the verso, I leaf; Lalemant's letter, pp. 1 - 3; text of Part I., pp. 4- I 58; a blank leaf to complete sig. K; half-title to Part II., with verso blank, I leaf; Ragueneau's letter, pp. 3 and 4; text of Part II., pp. 5 - 135, with verso of p. 135 blank. There is no mispaging; but in Part I. an italic font is used for the numeration of pp. 81 - 158. A careful comparison of the Lenox copy with the Ayer (formerly also a Lenox copy), and of the two copies in Harvard, reveals a complete textual and typographical agreement.

Copies of this Relation may be found in the following libraries: Lenox, Harvard, New York State Library, Laval University (Quebec), Library of Parliament (Ottawa), Brown (private), Ayer (private), Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris), and British Museum. Copies have been sold or priced as follows: O'Callaghan (1882), no. 1226, sold to Library of Parliament, Ottawa, for $61, and had cost him $58.75 in gold; Harrassowitz (1882), lacking the title-page, priced at 50 marks; Dufossé (1889 and 1891), priced at 500 and 450 francs, respectively. This annual is not as common as are many of the others. [page 308]

Note:—We are indebted to Edward E. Ayer, Esq., of Chicago, for a list of original Cramoisys in his private library. Of the Relations thus far described by us, he has all save the first—the Briève Relation of Paul le Jeune (Paris, I632). Subsequent ones will be noted in due course of procedure. Since the publication of our Vol. II., he has also secured in France a copy of Lescarbot's excessively rare Relation Derniere (Paris, 1612). This and the Harvard copy are the only ones known to us to exist in America. [page 309]

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(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages of English text.)