Bibliography #1:

  Surveys, Introductions & Reference Works

 - New Testament
 - Early Christianity
 - Medieval Christianity
 - The Reformation
 - Spirituality & Mysticism
 - Sacraments
 - 20th-Century Theology







#1: Surveys, Intros
#2: Ignatius of Antioch
#3: Origen
#4: Athanasius
#5: Cyril of Alexandria
#6: Jerome & Ambrose
#7: Augustine of Hippo
#8: Antony
#9: Cyril of Jerusalem
#10: Melania the Elder


 compiled by William Harmless, S.J.

Creighton University


    1. History of the Early Church: Surveys

    2. Theology of the Early Church: Surveys

    3. Reference Works & Handbooks

    4. Journals & Essays on Early Christianity

    5. The Roman Empire: History & Society

    6. Fathers of the Church: Texts & Translations

    7. Fathers of the Church: Anthologies





Henry Chadwick, The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great, Oxford History of the Christian Church (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).  An up-to-date and comprehensive one-volume survey of early Christianity.  Chadwick writes with great lucidity, able to make complex matters clear and understandable.  The best place to start.


The Cambridge History of Christianity (New York / Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005-2007).  This new comprehensive Cambridge History will be recognized in coming decades as the standard survey of Church history.  Each of its massive volumes offer thorough introductions both to key events and to broad themes and includes contributions from leading contemporary historians.  The two volumes that focus on early Christianity are:

  • Vol. 1: Frances Young & Margaret Mitchell, eds., Origins to Constantine (2005).

  • Vol. 2: Augustine Casiday & Frederick W. Norris, eds., Constantine to c. 600 (2007).

Philip F. Esler, ed. The Early Christian World, 2 vol. (New York: Routledge, 2000).  This 1300-page, two-volume textbook surveys all the key aspects of early Christianity, its social and intellectual world, its art and worship, its intellectuals and its clashes, both internal and external.  Each chapter is authored by an expert, and offers an up-to-date introduction to the topic.  Most interesting is the set of “profiles” that close volume 2, chapters on Origen, Tertullian, Perpetua, Constantine, Antony, Athanasius, Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Ephrem.


Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity AD 200-1000, Tenth Anniversary Revised Edition (Oxford: WileyBlackwell, 2013), NEW in paperback, $45.

Allen Brent, A Political History of Early Christianity (New York: T&T Clark / Continuum, 2009).

Virginia Burrus, ed., Late Ancient Christianity, A People's History of Christianity 2 (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005).

Henry Chadwick, East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church: From Apostolic Times Until the Council of Florence, Oxford History of the Christian Church (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Charles Freeman, A New History of Early Christianity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009).

W.H.C. Frend, The Rise of Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984).

Josef Lössl, Early Church: Christianity in Late Antiquity (New York: T&T Clark, 2010).

Mark Humphries, Early Christianity (New York: Routledge, 2006).

John Meyendorff, Imperial Unity and Christian Divisions: the Church, 450-680 (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir Seminary Press, 1989).

Samuel Hugh Moffett, A History of Christianity in Asia, Vol. 1: Beginnings to 1500, 2nd edition (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1998).

Paul Veyne, When Our World Became Christian, 312-394 (Malden, MA: Polity, 2010).

Robert Louis Wilken, The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012).





Robert L. Wilken, The Spirit of Early Christian Thought: Seeking the Face of God (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003).  A remarkably lucid introduction to early Christian theology—elegant simplicity on the far side of complexity.  Especially good on the biblical moorings of early Christianity.  Wilken peppers his survey with cogent anecdotes.  Arranged thematically rather than chronologically.


Frances Young, Lewis Ayres & Andrew Louth, ed., The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).  A fine study of the literature (Greek, Latin, and Syriac) of the early Christian movement.  This includes studies of individual authors as well as their intellectual, cultural, and religious context.


Lewis Ayres, Nicaea and Its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitarian Theology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). A vital revisionist interpretation of the development of the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and of the Trinity. Not easy reading. Ayres presumes you know the standard accounts of the key figures and events, but he offers an essential re-interpretation and re-ordering of that history.


John Behr, Formation of Christian Theology, 2 volumes (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2001-2004).  An important survey from an Orthodox perspective.

Paul M. Blowers, The Drama of the Divine Economy: Creator and Creation in Early Christian Theology, Oxford Early Christian Studies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Franz Dünzl, A Brief History of the Doctrine of the Trinity in the Early Church (London: T&T Clark, 2007).  Excellent introduction to a complex and critical area of early Christian thought.  Serves as a good bridge to reading more sophisticated studies by Behr and Ayres.

Mark Edwards, Catholicity and Heresy in the Early Church (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009).

G.R. Evans, ed., First Christian Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Early Church, The Great Theologians (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004). Articles too brief to be of much help.

Stuart G. Hall, Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church, 2nd ed. (London: SPCK, 2005).

Paul Hinlicky, Divine Complexity: The Rise of Creedal Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2010).

J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, 5th edition (New York: Continuum, 2000).

R.A. Markus, The End of Ancient Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).  Not a survey, but intriguing perspectives on developments.

Anthony Meredith, Christian Philosophy in the Early Church (London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2012).

G.L. Prestige, Fathers and Heretics: Six Studies in Dogmatic Faith (London: SPCK, 1940). 
Dated, but a classic.

Johannes Roldanus, The Church in the Age of Constantine: The Theological Challenges (New York: Routledge, 2006).

Frances Young (with Andrew Teale), From Nicaea to Chalcedon, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2010).  A classic, now in a new edition.





Susan Ashbrook Harvey & David Hunter, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Studies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).  An extraordinarily wide-ranging survey of themes within and elements of early Christianity.  There are chapters on key regions (Egypt, Syria, North Africa, Italy, Gau), emerging authorities and structures (clergy, biblical canon, councils, monasticism), elements of Christian culture (apologetics, homiletics, hagiography, poetry, philosophy), and ritual practices and piety (baptism, eucharist, prayer, pilgrimage).  It emphasizes new discoveries and perspectives gleaned from recent scholarship and offers students insights into methodologies used by contemporary scholars.  Each chapter, authored by a leading expert, has extensive (and partially annotated) bibliographies.  Not to be missed.


Hubertus Drobner, The Fathers of the Church: A Comprehensive Introduction, trans. Siegfried Schatzmann; bibliographies updated and expanded for the English edition by William Harmless, SJ, & Hubertus Drobner (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2007).  A translation of the 2nd edition of Drobner's Lehrbuch der Patrologie (Herder & Herder, 2002), this handbook offers a comprehensive introduction to the Church Fathers, together with extensive bibliographies on each figure and on all the major patristic texts. This is designed to replace an old standard, Johannes Quasten’s Patrology.


Aziz S. Atiya, ed., The Coptic Encyclopedia, 8 vol. (New York: Macmillan, 1991).

Robert Benedetto, ed., The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History, Volume One: The Early, Medieval, and Reformation Eras (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2008).

G.W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, & Oleg Grabar, eds, Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press / Harvard University Press, 1999).

Henry Chadwick and Gillian R. Evans, ed., Atlas of the Christian Church (New York: Facts on File, 1987).

Angelo DiBerardino, ed., Encyclopedia of the Early Church, 2 vol., trans. Adrian Walford (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

David Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Oxford Paperback Reference, 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Everett Ferguson, Michael P. McHugh, & Frederick W. Norris, eds., Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, 2nd ed. (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998).

Allan Fitzgerald, ed., Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).

Catherine Hezser, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine, Oxford Handbooks (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

Scott Fitzgerald Johnson, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Philippe Levillain, ed., The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, 3 vols. (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Elizabeth A. Livingstone, ed., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Lucas Francisco Matteo-Seco, ed., The Brill Dictionary of Gregory of Nyssa, Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae (Boston / Leiden: Brill, 2009).

Ian A. McFarland, David A.S. Fergusson, Karen Kilby, Iaian R. Torrance, eds, Cambridge Dictionary of Christian Theology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

John A. McGuckin, The Westminster Handbook to Patristic Theology (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2004).

Linda Murray & Peter Murray, eds., Dictionary of Christian Art, Oxford Paperback Reference (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Daniel Patte, ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Jaroslav Pelikan & Valerie Hotchkiss, ed., Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 4 vol. & CD-ROM.

John Roberts, ed., Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

J.W. Rogerson & Judith M. Lieu, eds., Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies, Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).





The most important patristics journal in the English-speaking world is the Journal of Early Christian Studies (Johns Hopkins University Press).  Also important is Studia Patristica, which publishes the proceedings of the International Patristics Conference held in Oxford every four years.  The two leading European patristics journals are Vigiliae Christianae and the Journal of Theological Studies. The former also publishes an excellent monograph series entitled "Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae."  Other English-speaking journals that publish important articles relevant to the field are: Augustinian Studies, Journal of Roman Studies, Church History, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, American Benedictine Review, Harvard Theological Review, Studia Monastica, and Theological Studies.


Lewis Ayres & Gareth Jones, eds., Christian Origins: Theology, Rhetoric, and Community (New York: Routledge, 1998).

Christopher A. Beeley, Re-Reading Gregory of Nazianzus: Essays on History, Theology, and Culture CUA Studies in Early Christianity, vol. 5 (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2012).

John Behr, Andrew Louth, & Dimitri Conomos, eds., Abba: The Tradition of Orthodoxy in the West: Festschrift for Bishop Kallistos Ware (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2003).

Paul M. Blowers, ed., In Dominico eloquio: Essays on Patristic Exegesis in Honor of Robert Louis Wilken (Grand Rapid, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 2002).

Gerald Bonner, Church and Faith in the Patristic Tradition: Augustine, Pelagianism and Early Christian Northumbria, Collected Studies 521 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1996).

Charles A. Bobertz and David Brakke, eds., Reading in Christian Communities: Essays on Interpretation in the Early Church (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002).

G.W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, & Oleg Grabar, eds, Interpreting Late Antiquity: Essays on the Postclassical World (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press / Harvard University Press, 2001).

David Brakke, Michael L. Satlow, Steven Weitzman, eds., Religion and the Self in Antiquity (Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, 2005).

Peter Brown, Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982).

Peter Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of St. Augustine (1972; reprint: Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2007).

Henry Chadwick, Studies on Ancient Christianity, Collected Studies 832 (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2006).

Henry Chadwick, Heresy and Orthodoxy in the Early Church, Collected Studies 342 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1991).

Henry Chadwick, History and Thought of the Early Church, Collected Studies 164 (London: Various Reprints, 1982).

Stephen T. Davis, Daniel Kendall & Gerald O’Collins, eds., The Trinity: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Trinity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).  While some essays range beyond patristics, there is much of use to patristic scholars.  See especially the essays by Joseph Lienhard and Michel Barnes.

Stephen T. Davis, Daniel Kendall & Gerald O’Collins, eds., The Incarnation: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Incarnation of the Son of God (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).  While some essays go beyond patristics, there is much here of use.  See especially essays by Brian E. Daley and Sarah Coakley.

Everett Ferguson, ed., Studies in Early Christianity (New York: Garland, 1993) 18 vol., hardcover.  This valuable series reprints important and often hard-to-find journal articles.

Everett Ferguson, ed., Recent Studies in Early Christianity: A Collection of Scholarly Essays, 6 vol. (New York: Garland Publishing, 1999).

W.H.C. Frend, Orthodoxy, Paganism, and Dissent in the Early Christian Centuries, Collected Studies 750 (London: Variorum Reprints, 2002).

W.H.C. Frend, Archeology and History in the Study of Early Christianity, Collected Studies 282 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1988).

W.H.C. Frend, Town and Country in the Early Christian Centuries (London: Variorum Reprints, 1980).

W.H.C. Frend, Religion, Popular and Unpopular in the Early Christian Centuries, Collected Studies 45 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1976).

Carol Harrison, Caroline Humfress, and Isabella Sandwell, eds., Being Christian in Late Antiquity: A Festschrift for Gillian Clark (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) hardcover, $99.  NEW.

James Howard-Johnston & Paul Antony Hayward, eds., The Cult of the Saints in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Essays on the Contribution of Peter Brown (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

William E. Klingshirn & Mark Vessey, eds., The Limits of Ancient Christianity: Essays on Late Antique Thought and Culture in Honor of R.A. Markus (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999).

R.A. Markus, From Augustine to Gregory the Great: History and Christianity in Late Antiquity, Collected Studies 169 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1983).

R.A. Markus, Sacred and Secular: Studies on Augustine and Latin Christianity, Collected Studies 465 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1996).

Dale B. Martin and Patricia Cox Miller, eds., The Cultural Turn in Late Antique Studies: Gender, Asceticism, and Historiography (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005).

Cornelius Mayer, ed. Homo Spiritualis: Festgabe für Luc Verheijen OSA (Würzburg: Augustinus-Verlag, 1987).

Frederick W. Norris, Abraham Malherbe, & James W. Thompson, ed., The Early Church in Context: Essays in Honor of Everett Ferguson, Supplements to Novum Testamentum 80 (Leiden: Brill, 1998).

John J. O’Meara, Studies in Augustine and Eriugena, ed. Thomas Halton (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1992).

Ronnie J. Rombs and Alexander Y. Hwang, eds., Tradition and the Rule of Faith in the Early Church (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2010).

Rowan Williams, ed., The Making of Orthodoxy: Essays in Honour of Henry Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).





The range of scholarly studies on the Roman Empire and the classical world, within which early Christianity emerged, is obviously massive.  Here are some recent works especially relevant to early Christian studies:


The Cambridge Ancient History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970-     ), 13 volumes to date.  This is the standard scholarly survey history of the ancient world.   Three volumes of this intersect with the patristic period:

  • Vol. 10: Alan Bowman, ed., The Augustan Empire: 43 BC-AD 69, 2nd ed. (1996).

  • Vol. 11: Alan Bowman, ed., The High Empire: AD 70-192 (2001).

  • Vol. 13: Averil Cameron & Peter Garnsey, eds., The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425 (1998).

  • Vol. 14: Averil Cameron, ed., Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors (AD 425-600) (2001).

Alessandro Barchiesi & Walter Scheidel, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Studies, Oxford Handbooks (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).  A major comprehensive survey that offers chapters on materials and methods (text criticism, archeology, epigraphy, numismatics, papyrology, prosopography), genres of literature (epic, theater, letters, history, biography), historical periods, social dimensions, and key ancient ideas.  The accent is on new scholarly perspectives.


Marcel Le Glay, Jean-Louis Voisin, & Yann LeBohec, A History of Rome, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000).  A solid textbook survey of the 1300-year history of Rome, helpful in sorting out basics: emperors, the Senate, imperial bureaucracy; the army and its conquests; class structure, provinces & frontiers; trade & taxation.  It includes valuable chronological charts and maps.


Roger S. Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993)

Roger S. Bagnall, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Timothy Barnes, Constantine: Dynasty, Religion and Power in the Later Roman Empire (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011).

Mary Beard, John North, and Simon Price. Religions of Rome. 2 vol. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Anthony R. Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, Roman Imperial Biographies (New York: Routledge, 1999).

Anthony R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, Roman Imperial Biographies (New York: Routledge, 2000).

John Boardman, Jaspar Griffin, Oswyn Murray, ed., The Roman World, Oxford History of the Classical World, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

G.W. Bowersock, The Throne of Adulis: Red Sea Wars on the Eve of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) hardcover, $18. NEW.

Alan K. Bowman, Egypt After the Pharaohs, 332 BC-AD 642: From Alexander to the Arab Conquest (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).

Alan K. Bowman and Greg Woolf, eds., Literacy and Power in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Peter Brown, Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350-550 AD (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012).

Thomas S. Burns, Rome and the Barbarians (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003). 

Averil Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity, AD 395-600, Routledge History of the Ancient World (New York: Routledge, 1993).

John Curran, Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century, Oxford Classical Monographs (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

William Dominik and John Hall, eds., A Companion to Roman Rhetoric, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).

Katherine M.D. Dunbabin, The Roman Banquet: Images of Convivality (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

J.R. Elsner, Imperial Rome & Christian Triumph: The Art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Jas Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007).

Hugh Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe, 350-425 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

J.A.S. Evans, The Age of Justinian: The Circumstances of Imperial Power, Roman Imperial Biographies (New York: Routledge, 2000).

Richard Finn, ed., Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice (313-450), Oxford Classical Monographs (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Jennifer A. Glancy, Slavery in Early Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Martin Goodman, The Roman World, 44BC-AD180, Routledge History of the Ancient World (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Martin Goodman, Jews in a Greco-Roman World, rev. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Anthony Grafton, Glenn W. Most, and Salvatore Settis, The Classical Tradition, Harvard University Press Reference Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).  A major (and massive) new one-volume encyclopedia.

Judith Evans Grubbs, ed., Woman and the Law in the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook on Marriage, Divorce, and Widowhood (New York: Routledge, 2002).

Pierre Hadot, What Is Ancient Philosophy? trans. Michael Chase (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002).

Kim Haines-Eitzen, Guardians of Letters: Literary, Power, and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Kyle Harper, Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275-425 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

Stephen Harrison, ed., A Companion to Latin Literature, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).

Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth & Simon Spawforth, eds. Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Benjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).

Robert B. Jackson, At the Empire’s Edge: Exploring Rome’s Egyptian Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).

A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602, 2 vol. (reprint: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1978). Superb but dated study of the social world of the Roman Empire.  A classic.

Craig W. Kallendorf, ed., A Companion to the Classical Tradition, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).

Joel Kalvesmaki, The Theology of Arithmetic: Number Symbolism in Platonism and Early Christianity (Center for Hellenic Studies, 2013) paperback, $23. NEW.

Christopher Kelly, Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005).

George A. Kennedy, A New History of Classical Rhetoric (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994).

Jason Konig, Athletics and Literature in the Roman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Donald Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, Approaching the Ancient World (New York: Routledge, 1998).

Bertrand Lancon, Rome in Late Antiquity, AD 313-604 (New York: Routledge, 2000).

Noel Lenski, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

A.A. Long, Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics, Epicureans, Sceptics, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).

Michael Maas, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Michael Maas, Michael, Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2010).

Ralph W. Mathiesen and Danuto Shanzer, eds., Romans, Barbarians and the Transformation of the Roman World (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011).

Fergus Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (reprint: Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992).

Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II, 408-450 (Berkeley: University of California, 2007).

Ruth Morello and A. D. Morrison, Ancient Letters: Classical and Late Antique Epistolography (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

George Mousourakis, A Legal History of Rome (New York: Routledge, 2007).

Geoffrey S. Nathan, The Family in Late Antiquity: The Rise of Christianity and the Endurance of Tradition (New York: Routledge, 2000).

J.A. North and S.R.F. Price, eds., The Religious History of the Roman Empire: Pagans, Jews, and Christians, Oxford Readings in Classical Studies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Charles Matson Odahl, Constantine and the Christian Empire, Roman Imperial Biographies (New York: Routledge, 2004).

Neville Morley, Trade in Class Antiquity, Key Themes in Ancient History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

Daniel Ogden, ed., A Companion to Greek Religion, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).

David S. Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge History of the Ancient World (New York: Routledge, 2004).

David S. Potter, ed., A Companion to the Roman Empire, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).

Simon Price and Emily Kearns, eds.,The Oxford Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Beryl Rawson & Paul Weaver, eds., The Roman Family in Italy: Status, Sentiment, Space (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

John Roberts, ed., Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Philip Rousseau, ed., A Companion to Late Antiquity (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012)

Michele Renee Salzman, The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002).

David Sedley, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Greek and Roman Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Pat Southern, The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Pat Southern, The Late Roman Army (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996).

Barbara Stanley Spaeth, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Mediterranean Religions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) paperback, $33. NEW.

Andrew Smith, Philosophy in Late Antiquity (New York: Routledge, 2004).

John E. Stambaugh, The Ancient Roman City, Ancient Society and History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1994).

Catherine Steel, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Cicero (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) paperback, $30. NEW.

Simon Swain & Mark Edwards, eds., Approaching Late Antiquity: The Transformation from Early to Late Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Robert Turcan, The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times, trans. Antonia Nevill (New York: Routledge, 2000).

Susan Treggiari, Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).

Raymond Van Dam, Kingdom of Snow: Roman Rule and Greek Culture in Cappadocia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002).

Paul Veyne, ed., The History of Private Life, Vol. 1: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).

Edward J. Watts, City and School in Late Antique Athens and Alexandria, Transformation of the Classical Heritage (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

Leslie Webster and Michelle Brown, eds., The Transformation of the Roman World, AD 400-900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

C.R. Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire, Ancient Society and History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1996).

Stephen Williams & Gerard Friell, Theodosius: The Empire at Bay (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).

Ian Worthington, ed., A Companion to Greek Rhetoric, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).





The monumental collection of the Greek and Latin texts of the Church Fathers was done by J.P. Migne in the mid-19th century: the Patrologia Graeca (PG) and the Patrologia Latina (PL).  Migne's editions are slowly being replaced by modern critical editions.  Two important series offering critical editions are the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (CSEL) and the Corpus Christianorum Series Latina (CCL).  The most important contemporary series is the Sources chrétiennes (SC) (Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1950s-     ), which has published 500+ volumes to date; it has the original text (either Greek or Latin) with a French translation on the facing page; volumes also include extensive introductions and notes.  Also important is the 500+ volume series, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium (CSCO), which publishes texts preserved in the languages of the Christian East (Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, and Ethiopic), with a translation into a modern European language (usually English, French, or German).  There are also series that offer English translations.  The major series with complete works are the following:


Fathers of the Church, 126 volumes to date (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1948-    ).  The early volumes from the 1940s and 1950s are uneven, but recent volumes are dependable and often excellent both in the quality of the translations and in the accompanying introductions and notes.


Ancient Christian Writers, 66 volumes to date (Westminster, MD: Newman Press / New York: Paulist Press, 1946- ).  Overall, solid translations.  This was once a top series, but not many volumes have come out in recent years.


Ante-Nicene Fathers, 10 volumes (reprint: Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995).  These translations were done in the mid 19th century, but remain often the only English translation of certain works.


Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 28 volumes (reprint: Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995).  The first series contains the works of Augustine and John Chrysostom; the second, translations of other major figures and documents.  These translations were done in the mid 19th-century, and many remain the only ones available in English.


The Works of St. Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century, ed. John E. Rotelle and Boniface Ramsey (Brooklyn, NY: New City Press, 1990-    ).  This series, which began in 1990, will take at least another decade to complete.  It is sponsored by the Augustinian Heritage Institute.  Already published are the complete Sermones ad Populum (11 volumes, including the newly discovered Dolbeau sermons), the complete Expositions of the Psalms (6 volumes), the complete Letters (4 volumes, including the recently discovered Divjak letters), the complete anti-Pelagian treatises (4 volumes), and the complete anti-Manichean writings (2 volumes). The latest publications include a two-volume translation of Augustine's classic City of God


Oxford Early Christian Texts (Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press).  A superb series with critical editions of Greek and Latin texts, with a facing English translation. Volumes include Athanasius' De incarnatione (1971), Acts of the Christian Martyrs (1975), Augustine's De doctrina christiana (1995), Ambrose's De officiis, Justin Martyr's Apologies (2009), and Simeon the New Theologian's Epistles (2010), An important new offshoot of this is Oxford Apostolic Fathers, 3 volumes to date (Epistle of Polycarp, 2 Clement, and the Epistle to Diognetus).  This includes a critical edition of the Greek text with a facing English translation and rich commentary.


Popular Patristics Series, ed. John Behr (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1979-      ).  47 volumes to date, and rapidly expanding.  Very reasonably priced ($12-$18), with good, up-to-date translations.  Volumes generally focus on a single work, e.g. Irenaeus' On the Apostolic Preaching; Ephrem the Syrian's Hymns on Paradise, Cyril of Alexandria's On the Unity of Christ, Athanasius' On the Incarnation and Athanasius' Letter to Serapion.


Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1985-     ).  This series concentrates on individual classic works both from late antiquity (such as Optatus of Milevis, Ambrose, Gregory of Tours) and from the early Middle Ages (notably from Cassiodorus, Gregory of Tours, and Bede).  Generally excellent translations, introductions, and notes.


Cistercian Studies Series (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications / Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1975-    ).  This series mainly includes translations and studies of medieval monastic figures, but it does have a number of valuable translations of early monastic texts, such as the works by Pachomius, Evagrius Ponticus, Theodoret of Cyrus, Diadochus of Photike, the Syriac Liber Graduum (Book of Steps) and The Book of the Elders: Sayings of the Desert Fathers: The Systematic Collection (2012)  It also has valuable translations of works by Gregory the Great.


Ancient Christian Texts (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2009-    ).  A new series with 6 volumes to date, including the first English translation of Ambrosiaster and biblical commentaries by Origen and Theodore of Mopsuestia.


Classics of Western Spirituality, ed. Bernard McGinn (New York: Paulist Press, 1978-      ).  While this 100+ volume series is not limited to patristic authors, it does contain the works of a number of the leading Church Fathers, including Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Augustine, John Cassian, Pseudo-Macarius, Maximus the Confessor, and Pseudo-Dionysius.





For most people, the best entrance into Church Fathers is reading anthologies.  It is a good way to find out who and what interests you.  Here are some of the better anthologies or collections:


Carol Harrison, ed., Early Church Fathers Series, 18 volumes to date (New York: Routledge, 1996-2009) paperback, $25-35 per volume.  This recent series concentrates on individual Church Fathers.  Each volume has a lengthy introduction followed by new translations of major (and often previously untranslated) works:

  • Pauline Allen & C.T.R. Hayward, Severus of Antioch (2004).

  • Khalid Anatolios, Athanasius (2004).

  • A.M. Casiday, Evagrius Ponticus (2006).

  • Brian E. Daley, Gregory of Nazianzus (2006).

  • Geoffrey Dunn, Tertullian (2004).

  • Robert M. Grant, Irenaeus of Lyons (1997).

  • István Pásztori Kupán, Theodoret of Cyrus (2006).

  • Andrew Louth, Maximus the Confessor (1996).

  • Frederick McLeod, Theodore of Mopsuestia (2009).

  • John Moorhead, Gregory the Great (2005).

  • Wendy Meyer & Pauline Allen, John Chrysostom (2000).

  • Anthony Meredith, Gregory of Nyssa (1999).

  • Bronwen Neil, Leo the Great (2009).

  • Boniface Ramsey, Ambrose (1997).

  • Stefan Rebenich, Jerome (2002).

  • Norman Russell, Cyril of Alexandria (2000).

  • Norman Russell, Theophilus of Alexandria (2007).

  • Joseph W. Trigg, Origen (1998).

  • Carolinne White, Early Christian Latin Poets (2000).

  • Edward Yarnold, Cyril of Jerusalem (2000).

J. Stevenson, ed., A New Eusebius: Documents Illustrative of the history of the Church to AD 337 and Creeds, Councils, Controversies: Documents Illustrative of the history of the Church AD 337-461, revised edition by W.H.C. Frend (London: SPCK, 1987 & 1989).  An indispensable pair of anthologies.  Stevenson assembles snippets from a vast range of hard-to-find materials: acts of Christian martyrs, conciliar documents, key passages from heretics and persecutors, inscriptions on coins and catacombs, snatches of gossip in scattered letters.  The end result is a brilliant mosaic of early Christianity.


Bart D. Ehrman, ed. After the New Testament: A Reader in Early Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).  Covers up to c. 300.

Bart D. Ehrman & Andrew Jacobs, ed., Christianity in Late Antiquity, 300-450 C.E.: A Reader (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Thomas Halton, ed., Message of the Fathers of the Church, 22 volumes (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1980s-1997).  Volumes arranged by topic: the Holy Spirit, baptism, eucharist, biblical interpretation, women, prayer, social ethics, etc.

William Harmless, ed., Augustine in His Own Words (Washington, DC: Catholic University Press, 2010).  A comprehensive anthology of the writings of Augustine.

A.D. Lee, ed., Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook (New York: Routledge, 2000).

Thomas C. Oden & Christopher H. Hall, eds., The Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture, 26 volumes to date (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1998-     ).

Richard Valantasis, ed., Religions of Late Antiquity in Practice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).



Revised: July 14, 2014

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